The nationalism of the first half
of the 19 century was closely
associated with liberalism.
Cultural Nationalism
 Asserted that each ethnicity or nation, meaning people, has a distinct
identity based on common language, food, dance, traditions, and
often but not always religion.
 For most nationalities, such cultural unity was more of a dream than
 Local dialects abounded, and peasants from nearby villages often failed to
understand each other.
 Historical memory often divided the inhabitants of the different German
or Italian states as much as it unified them.
 Also, a variety of ethnic groups shared the territory of most states.
Political Nationalism
 In already formed states, nationalism meant patriotism, love of and
commitment to country, and the drive to enhance the country’s
prestige and power.
 The more explosive form of nationalism developed where nationstates had not yet been formed.
 Nationalists demanded the right to form liberal states whose boundaries
were determined by the nation.
 This meant unification in the case of Italy and Germany, and
independence for the subject nationalities under Austrian, Russian, or
Ottoman rule.