Document 14476363

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University of Baghdad
College of Nursing
Department of Basic Medical Sciences
Overview of
Anatomy and Physioloy –II
Second Year Students
Asaad Ismail Ahmad , Ph.D.
Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
[email protected]
2012 - 2013
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY - II
Brief Contents
1- Cardiovascular System
2- Blood
3- Lymphatic System
4- Urinary System
5- Male Reproductive System
6- Female Reproductive System
7- Sensory Function
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
Text book
Martini FH. Fundamentals of Anatomy and
Physiology, 5th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey,
2001.
References:
1.Barrett KE, Barman SM, Boitano S, Brooks HL. Ganong's Review of Medical
Physiology, 23rd ed. McGraw Hill, Boston, 2010.
2.Drake RL, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM. Gray's Anatomy for Students. Elsevier,
Philadelphia, 2005.
3.Goldberger ,E. 1975.A Primer of Water Electrolyte and Acid-Base Syndromes. 5th ed.,
Lea and Febiger ,Philadelphia.
4. Martini, FH and Welch K. Applications Manual Fundamentals of Anatomy and
Physiology,4th ed., Prentice Hall, NewJersey, 1998.
5.Maxwell, MH and Kleeman CR. 1980.Clinical Disorders of Fluid and
Electrolyte Metabolism. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
6.McKinley M, and O'Loughlin VD. Human Anatomy, McGraw Hill, Boston,
2006.
7.Nutrition Foundation.1984.Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 5th ed.,
Nutrition Foundation, Inc , Washington, D.C.
8.Vander A, Sherman J, Luciano D., Human Physiology, 7th ed., McGraw Hill,
Boston, 1998.
Contents:
CARDIOVASCULAR
SYSTEM
I- ANATOMY OF THE HEART
II- ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS
III- PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART
IV- PHYSIOLOGY BLOOD VESSELS
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
ANATOMY OF BLOOD VESSELS
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D.
in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
SECOND LECTURE
Anatomy of the Blood Vessels
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Types of blood vessels
Structures of the wall of Blood Vessels
Coronary Circulation
Pulmonary Circulation
Systemic Circulation
Hepatic Portal Circulation
Fetal Circulation
Asaad Ismail Ahmad, Ph.D in Electrolyte and Mineral Physiology
College of Nursing – University of Baghdad / 2012 – 2013
[email protected]
Contents:
1- Types of blood vessels
TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS 694
I- Arteries
1- Elastic arteries
2- Muscular arteries
3- Arterioles
II- Capillaries
1- Continuous capillaries
2- Fenestrated capillaries
3- Sinusoids
4- Capillary bed
III- VEINS
1- Veinules
2- Medium sized veins
3- Large veins
4- Venous valves
HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VSSELS (694)
ARTERIOLES AND SMOOTH MUSCLES
Dead-end lymph capillaries found in tissue spaces.
Structure of the capillary wall. Note especially the
intercellular cleft, where the most water-soluble
substances diffuse
CAPILLARY FILTRATION 708
Exchanges between blood in a systemic capillary and
the surrounding tissue fluid.
TYPES OF CAPILLARIES
ORGANIZATION OF A CAPILLARY BED
(699)
Contents:
2- Structures of the Wall of
Blood Vessels
STRUCTURES OF THE WALL OF BLOOD
VESSELS (692-693)
The wall of the arteries and veins
contain or composed from three
distinct layers:
1- TUNICA INTERNA (INTIMA)
2- TUNICA MEDIA
3- TUNICA EXTERNA
(Adventitia)
TUNICA INTERNA
The innermost layer include
endothelial lining and the
underlying layer of connective
tissue (elastic fibers)
TUNICA MEDIA
The middle layer, contains concentric
sheets of smooth muscle tissue in
framework of loose connective tissue
(collagen fibers). Smooth muscle
control the diameter of blood vessels.
TUNICA EXTERNA
The outermost layer and form
connective tissue sheath around
the vessel (collagen and elastic
fiber). Muscular and elastic
components control alterations in
diameter as blood pressure or
blood volume changes.
MECHANISMS FACILITATE VENOUS
RETURN 699
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Venous valves
Skeletal muscle pump
Respiratory pump
Perforating vein
VALVES IN VEINS
FUNCTION OF VALVE IN VENOUS SYSTEM:
(700) (Venous Return)
Contents:
3- Coronary Circulation
CORONARY CIRCULATION
(CORONARY ARTERIES AND VEINS) (666-667)
I- Left Coronary Artery
Branches of left coronary artery
1- Circumflex artery
2- Anterior interventricular artery
II- Right Coronary Artery
Branches of right coronary artery
1- Psterior interventricular artery
2- Marginal artery
Continue: CORONARY CIRCULATION
III- CORONARY VEINS
1- Great cardiac vein
2- Small cardiac vein
3- Middle cardiac vein
4- Coronary sinus
CORONARY CIRCULATION
ANTERIOR VIEW OF CORONARY CIRCULATION:
CARDIAC ARTERIES
POSTERIOR VIEW OF THE CORONARY CIRCULATION: CARDIAC VEINS
Contents:
4- Pulmonary Circulation
PULMONARY CIRCULATION 724
1- Pulmonary trunk
2- Left pulmonary artery
3- Right pulmonary artery
4- Pulmonary veins
5- Pulmonary capillaries
PULMONARY CIRCULATION
POSTERIOR SURFACE OF THE HEART
Contents:
5- Systemic Circulation
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION 725
General Distribution of arteries
1- Ascending aorta
2- Aortic arch
3- Carotid artery (L&R)
4- Subclavian artery (L&R)
5- Descending thoracic aorta
6- Intercostal artery (L&R)
Continue : Systemic Circulation
7- Celiac trunk (gastric, splenic,
hepatic)
8- Superior mesentric artery
9- Renal artery (L&R)
10-Inferior mesentric artery
11-Gonadal artery (L&R)
12-External iliac artery (L&R)
13-Internal iliac artery (L&R)
14-Femoral artery (L&R)
Structure of the heart, and course of blood flow
through the heart chambers and heart valves.
Contents:
6- Hepatic Portal
Circulation
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION 741
Is a venous network that drains the GIT and
shunts the blood to the liver. The blood exit
the liver through hepatic veins to inferior
vena cava (liver is the only digestive organ
that drains directly into inferior vena cava).
hepatic portal System begins in capillaries
of the digestive organs and ends as the
hepatic portal vein discharges into liver
sinusoid.
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION
compose from:
1- Hepatic portal vein (portal vein)
2- Hepatic vein
BRANCHES OF VEINS MERGE TO FORM HEPATIC
PORTAL VEIN
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Gastric veins
Splenic vein
Pancreatic veins
Colic veins
Inferior mesentric vein
Superior rectal veins
Intestinal veins
Ileocolic vein
Superior mesenteric vein
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION
Contents:
7- Fetal Circulation:
FETAL CIRCULATION: COMPARES OF FETAL AND
NEONATAL STRUCTURES 742
Fetal structure
1- Ductus
arteriosus
2- Ductus venosus
3- Foramen ovale
4- Umbilical arteries
5- Umbilical veins
Postnatal structure
1- Ligamentum
arteriosus
2- Ligamentum venosum
3- Fossa ovalis
4- Medial umbilical ligaments
5- Round ligament of
liver
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