Cardiovascular System SG

Cardiovascular System SG
1. What is the main function of the cardiovascular system?
2. What organs make up the cardiovascular system?
3. Where is the apex of the heart – what does it point to? Where is the base of the heart – what
does it point to?
4. Describe the coverings and wall of the heart
5. Be able to label the four chambers of the heart and associated vessels (p. 365)
6. Define artery, vein, systemic circulation, and pulmonary circulation.
6. Be able to label or describe the location of the four heart valves and what “backflow” each
valve prevents.
7. Describe what causes valves to open and close.
8. Be able to trace the flow of blood through the heart.
9. Be able to explain the cardiac conduction system of the heart and how a signal is sent from SA
node to AV node, and so on. What makes the lub and dub sound of the heart?
10. What is systole and what is diastole? How does this relate to the electrical impulses sent from
the AV node?
11. List major differences between arteries and veins (p. 376)
12. Explain the difference between a vascular shunt and true capillaries. What is the function of
the precapillary sphincter? (p.337 – esp. Figure 11.11)
13. Define blood pressure, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure (p.388)
14. Explain how to measure the blood pressure in the brachial artery using a stethoscope and
sphygmomanometer (p.389)
15. Define cardiac output.
Not to focus on as much:
- ECG waves
- Knowing all the stages of the cardiac cycle (you should still know how systole and diastole
cause blood to move through the heart and what causes valves to open and close)
- Factors affecting blood pressure
- Tunics surrounding blood vessels
- Coronary circulation of the heart and coronary artery disease