The Two Messenger Services of the Brain 1.Neurons (Nervous System) 2. Endocrine System

The Two Messenger
Services of the Brain
1.Neurons (Nervous System)
2. Endocrine System
What is a nerve?
Bundles of neuron (axon and
dendrites) fibers
Can be seen by the unaided eye
Can rejuvenate themselves is
injured such as a severed finger. (
In fact you can expect feeling to
return at a rate of about 1 millimeter
a day!!!)
The Nerves
Nerves consist of neural “cables” containing
many axons. They are part of the peripheral
nervous system and connect muscles, glands,
and sense organs to the central nervous system.
What is a Neuron?
Neurons are single cells in the nervous
They can NOT be replaced so they must
last a lifetime!!
If the body of a neuron dies, the whole
cell will die (such as in polio)
Each neuron has an axon, a cell body
and dendrites.
Spaces between neurons are called
Parts of a Neuron
Cell Body: Life support center of the neuron.
Dendrites: Branching extensions at the cell body.
Receive messages from other neurons.
Axon: Long single extension of a neuron, covered
with myelin [MY-uh-lin] sheath to insulate and
speed up messages through neurons.
Terminal Branches of axon: Branched endings of an
axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
What is a neurotransmitter?
Any of a number of chemicals secreted
by the NEURONS; which cross the
synapse and alter activity in the
receiving neuron
Among the most important chemical
messengers are adrenaline, histamine
and various amino acids
(chemicals) released
from the sending
neuron travel across
the synapse and bind
to receptor sites on the
receiving neuron,
thereby influencing it
to generate an action
Lock & Key Mechanism
Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of
the receiving neuron in a key-lock
The Nervous System
Nervous System: Consists of all the nerve cells.
It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical
communication system.
Central Nervous System (CNS): the brain and
spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): the sensory
and motor neurons that connect the central
nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
Why is the spinal cord
It connects the brain to all other parts of
the body
It along with the brain make up the
Nerves which connect to the spinal cord
are part of the Peripheral Nervous
The Nervous System
What is the Endocrine
Made up of a number of glands
that pour chemicals into the
bloodstream called Hormones
It is the second messenger system
in the body
The Endocrine System
The Endocrine
System is the body’s
“slow” chemical
Communication is
carried out by
synthesized by a set
of glands.
What are Hormones?
Chemicals related to neurotransmitters.
Like transmitters, hormones activate
nerve cells
Hormones are chemicals synthesized by the
endocrine glands that are secreted in the
bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain and
many other tissues of the body.
For example, epinephrine (adrenaline) increases
heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar and
feelings of excitement during emergency
What are the major glands?
Pituitary- (the master gland) controls the
other glands through growth hormones
Adrenal- adds adrenaline for
Thyroid- controls metabolism
Pancreas- helps fight infection
Gonads (for both genders) –activated at
Pituitary Gland
Is called the “master gland.” The anterior pituitary
lobe releases hormones that regulate other glands.
The posterior lobe regulates water and salt
Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands
Regulate metabolic and calcium rate.
Adrenal Glands
Adrenal glands consist of the adrenal medulla and
the cortex. The medulla secretes hormones
(epinephrine and norepinephrine) during stressful
and emotional situations, while the adrenal cortex
regulates salt and carbohydrate metabolism.
Sex glands are located in different places in men
and women. They regulate bodily development
and maintain reproductive organs in adults.
What happens if the pituitary
gland malfunctions?
Too little growth hormone can
cause dwarfism
Too much growth hormone can
cause giantism