9 Grade Final Review (KEY)

9th Grade Final Review (KEY)
Skeletal System
Bones located in the arm: humerus, radius, ulna
Bones located in the leg: femur, patella, fibula, tibia
Bones located in the wrist and hand: carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges
Ligaments - Connect bone to bone
Tendons – Connect muscle to bone
Bone marrow: is responsible for the formation of blood cells
Muscular System
Functions of the Muscular System: Movement of body joints, support the skeleton, and
gives shape to the body
Types of Tissue: smooth (organs) cardiac (heart) and skeletal (biceps, triceps etc)
Biceps: Flexion
Gastrocnemius: Extension of the calf (raises toes up)
Antagonistic muscles: opposite muscle that work together for a muscle movement
(biceps and triceps)
Muscle Fibers:
Fast twitch- white fibers, contract quickly for explosive muscular contractions
Slow Twitch- red fibers, contract slowly, ability to contract for long periods of
Sprains occur in joints (ligaments)
Strains occur in muscles (tendons)
Calcium: mineral that hardens and strengthens bones
Caloric intake changes due to: metabolic changes, growth slows down, amount of time
spent of physical activities decreases
Anorexia: disease in which a person starves themselves, are obsessed with the
amount of food being eaten, exercises excessively
Bulimia: disease in which a person binge eats( eats a lot) and then purges (throws up)
to control or lose weight
Complex Carbohydrates: provide long lasting energy
Simple Carbohydrates: provide quick energy
Sources of Fiber: cereals, fruits, vegetables
Food High in Cholesterol: Red Meat, whole milk
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL): Good cholesterol, want a high level of HDL to
prevent heart disease
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL): Bad cholesterol, want a low level of LDL to prevent
heart disease
Reduce amount of saturated fats in diet by choosing fish, chicken and dry beans as
protein sources, read food labels carefully, and trim excess fat from meats
The 6 essential nutrients are: carbohydrates, proteins, water, fats, minerals,
and vitamins
Physical Fitness: ability to carry out daily tasks comfortably, body parts work
efficiently, and having enough energy to meet needs
Benefits of exercising: Improved appearance Improved body image, self control,
health, and confidence. More enjoyment of life. Increased muscular
strength/endurance and level of energy. Improved physical performance.
Increased success in school or work. Helps cope with stress. Sleep better.
Increased life expectancy
Muscular endurance: Ability to repeat muscle movement for a long period of
Flexibility: Range of movement possible at various joints. Example: Sit &
Reach Test
Cardiovascular endurance Relates to the ability of the heart, blood, blood
vessels, and respiratory system to supply oxygen and fuel to muscles during
exercise. Example: Aerobic exercise (body uses a large amount of oxygen for a
sustained period of time)
FIT formula:
Frequency – How often you exercise
Intensity – How hard you exercise
Time – How long you exercise
Principles of Training
The principle of overload – a basic principle of fitness training in
which the body is stressed and adapts to that stress
Principle of Progression – a principle of training that indicates that
overload should be increased gradually
Principle of Specificity – a principle of training that states the exercise
training is specific to the muscles that are being targeted
Target heart rates let you measure your initial fitness level and monitor your
progress in a fitness program
Warm Up: A 10-15 minute period during which you prepare your body for
exercise, increases core body temperature, increases blood flow to muscles,
prevents injuries
Cool Down: A 10-15 minute period of mild exercise that follows your training
session, allows your body to return to resting state (breathing and heart rate),
increases flexibility
Resting Heart Rate: Heart rate at rest, you can measure the progress gained in
your cardiovascular program by keeping a record of RHR. Normal RHR 50-100.
Lower RHR indicates a person has a good level of cardiovascular fitness
Types of Exercises Isometric, Isotonic, and Isokinetic
Isometric: contract or tighten muscles but do not change length.
Examples: force against a stationary object – gripping a tennis ball
Isotonic: Lengthen and shorten the muscle through a full range of motion
(ROM) by raising and lowering the resistance. Examples: weight is moved
through a ROM – dumbbell curls and pull ups
Isokinetic: Working the muscle through a full ROM at a constant speed
with a specialized exercise machine. Steady resistance throughout the
Experiencing fatigue: shortness of breath, increased heart rate and lactic acid
build up, increased body temperature (sweating)
Human Growth/Development
Dominant Traits: traits that occur more frequently
Development of a baby: fertilization, cell division, embryo, fetus, birth
Types of Childbirth: Breech, Caesarean, Natural
Factors that may require a caesarean section include: size of the pelvic bones, size
of the baby, position of the baby, and the physical condition of the mother
Sequence of Childbirth: Uterus contractions, water breaks, cervix dilates, appearance of
Environmental influences on the fetus include: nutrition of the mother, mother’s
smoking/drinking, mother’s addiction to prescription /or illegal drugs
A pregnant female should avoid smoking because smoking reduces the amount of
oxygen that the fetus receives and will negatively affect the fetus
Sexual Reproduction:
Ejaculation- is the release of semen
Conception- can occur when semen in ejaculated into the vagina
It is possible for egg cells to be fertilized up to twenty four hours after ovulation
Signs a Woman is Pregnant: one or more missed periods, morning sickness
(unexplained nausea), swelling and/or tenderness of the breasts
Abstinence is the only sure way to not become a teen parent and not contract a
sexually transmitted disease
Steroids come in many forms such as oral pills, creams, and injections
Steroids damages male and female reproductive systems, increase acne, could lead to
mood swings (roid rage), and increased body hair
Steroids are the synthetic form of testosterone
Sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted by sexual contact
HPV is linked to cervical cancer
Syphilis: chancre may appear, caused by a microorganisim, and if left untreated death
may result
Long term consequences of contracting a STD: pelvic inflammatory disease,
infertility, death
The virus that causes AIDS (HIV) attacks the body’s immune system
HIV can be transmitted by: using shared hypodermic needles with an infected
person, transfusions of AIDS (tainted blood), AIDS infected blood coming in contact
with a break in the skin
Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) can all be cured with
Consequences of being sexually active:
Contracting a sexually transmitted disease
Unwanted/unintended pregnancy
Possible damage of reputation that can affect future relationships