9 Grade Final Review

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9

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Grade Final Review

Name:________________________

Complete the review by filling in the blanks by using notes, tests, quizzes, assignments, etc.

You may also use my website as a resource. Correct answers will be reviewed in class if there is time. If not, the answer key will be posted on the website.

THIS IS A GRADE FOR THE FOURTH MARKING PERIOD. Final review will be checked for completion.

Skeletal System

Three Bones located in the arm: ______________________________

Bones located in the leg: femur, patella, fibula, tibia

Bones located in the wrist and hand: ____________________________

Ligaments - Connect bone to bone

Tendons – Connect ______________________ to bone

Bone marrow: is responsible for the formation of blood cells

Muscular System

Functions of the Muscular System: Movement of body joints, support the skeleton, and gives shape to the body

Types of Tissue: ____________________ (organs) ___________________

(heart) and ________________________ (biceps, triceps etc)

Muscle/Movement

Biceps: Flexion

Gastrocnemius: Extension of the calf (raises toes up)

Antagonistic muscles: ________________________ muscle that work together for a muscle movement (biceps and triceps)

Muscle Fibers:

Fast twitch- white fibers, contract quickly for explosive muscular contractions

Slow Twitch- red fibers, contract slowly, ability to contract for long periods of time

Sprains occur in ________________ (ligaments)

Strains occur in ____________________ (tendons)

Nutrition

____________________: mineral that hardens and strengthens bones

Caloric intake changes due to: metabolic changes, growth slows down, amount of time spent of physical activities decreases

_____________________: disease in which a person starves themselves, are obsessed with the amount of food being eaten, exercises excessively

Bulimia: disease in which a person binge eats( eats a lot) and then purges (throws up) to control or lose weight

_______________ Carbohydrates: provide long lasting energy

_______________ Carbohydrates: provide quick energy

Sources of Fiber: cereals, fruits, vegetables

Food High in Cholesterol: Red Meat, whole milk

High Density Lipoproteins (HDL): __________________ cholesterol, want a high level of HDL to prevent heart disease

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL): ___________________ cholesterol, want a low level of LDL to prevent heart disease

Reduce amount of saturated fats in diet by choosing fish, chicken and dry beans as protein sources, read food labels carefully, and trim excess fat from meats

The 6 essential nutrients are: _______________________________________

_____________________________________________________

Exercise

Physical Fitness: ability to carry out daily tasks comfortably, body parts work efficiently, and having enough energy to meet needs

Benefits of exercising: Improved appearance, improved body image, self control, health, and confidence, more enjoyment of life, increased muscular strength/endurance and level of energy, improved physical performance, increased success in school or work, helps cope with stress, sleep better, increased life expectancy

_________________________: Ability to repeat muscle movement for a long period of time

______________________: Range of movement possible at various joints.

Example: Sit & Reach Test

___________________________: Relates to the ability of the heart, blood, blood vessels, and respiratory system to supply oxygen and fuel to muscles during exercise. Example: Aerobic exercise (body uses a large amount of oxygen for a sustained period of time)

FIT formula:

____________________ – How often you exercise

___________________ – How hard you exercise

______________ – How long you exercise

Principles of Training

The principle of ___________________ – a basic principle of fitness training in which the body is stressed and adapts to that stress

Principle of _______________________ – a principle of training that indicates that overload should be increased gradually

Principle of _______________________ – a principle of training that states the exercise training is specific to the muscles that are being targeted

Target heart rates let you measure your initial fitness level and monitor your progress in a fitness program

Warm Up: A 10-15 minute period during which you prepare your body for exercise, increases core body temperature, increases blood flow to muscles, prevents injuries

Cool Down: A 10-15 minute period of mild exercise that follows your training session, allows your body to return to resting state (breathing and heart rate), increases flexibility

Resting Heart Rate: Heart rate at rest, you can measure the progress gained in your cardiovascular program by keeping a record of RHR. Normal RHR 50-100.

Lower RHR indicates a person has a good level of cardiovascular fitness

Types of Exercises

____________________: contract or tighten muscles but do not change length. Examples: force against a stationary object – gripping a tennis ball

____________________: Lengthen and shorten the muscle through a full range of motion (ROM) by raising and lowering the resistance.

Examples: weight is moved through a ROM – dumbbell curls and pull ups

_____________________: Working the muscle through a full ROM at a constant speed with a specialized exercise machine. Steady resistance throughout the movement

Experiencing fatigue: shortness of breath, increased heart rate and lactic acid build up, increased body temperature (sweating)

Human Growth/Development

Dominant Traits: traits that occur more frequently

Development of a baby: fertilization, cell division, embryo, fetus, birth

Three Types of Childbirth: _________________, ____________________, and

Natural

Factors that may require a caesarean section include: size of the pelvic bones, size of the baby, position of the baby, and the physical condition of the mother

Sequence of Childbirth: Uterus contractions, water breaks, cervix dilates, appearance of baby

Environmental influences on the fetus include: nutrition of the mother, mother’s smoking/drinking, mother’s addiction to prescription /or illegal drugs

A pregnant female should avoid smoking because smoking reduces the amount of oxygen that the fetus receives and will negatively affect the fetus

Sexual Reproduction:

______________________- is the release of semen

Conception- can occur when semen in ejaculated into the vagina

It is possible for egg cells to be fertilized up to twenty four hours after ovulation

Signs a Woman is Pregnant: _______________________________________

(unexplained nausea), swelling and/or tenderness of the breasts

_____________________________ is the only sure way to not become a teen parent and not contract a sexually transmitted disease

Steroids come in many forms such as oral pills, creams, and injections

Steroids damages male and female reproductive systems, increase acne, could lead to mood swings (roid rage), and increased body hair

Steroids are the synthetic form of ____________________________

STD’s/STI’s

Sexually transmitted diseases are transmitted by sexual contact

HPV is linked to ___________________ cancer

Syphilis: chancre may appear, caused by a microorganisim, and if left untreated death may result

Long term consequences of contracting a STD: pelvic inflammatory disease,

______________________, death

The virus that causes AIDS (HIV) attacks the body’s immune system

HIV can be transmitted by: using shared hypodermic needles with an infected person, transfusions of AIDS (tainted blood), AIDS infected blood coming in contact with a break in the skin

Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and NGU (nongonococcal urethritis) can all be cured with

______________________________

Consequences of being sexually active:

Contracting a sexually transmitted disease

Unwanted/unintended ___________________________

Possible damage of reputation that can affect future relationships

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