In-situ gradient from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea Jong Seong Khim

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In-situ partitioning behavior of perfluorinated compounds along a salinity
gradient from estuarine and coastal areas of Korea
Jong Seong Khim1,#,*, Seongjin Hong1,#, Jinsoon Park1,#, Jonathan E. Naile2, Garry Codling2, John P. Giesy2
1 Division
of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea
2 Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
# Present Address: School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
*Corresponding
author. E-mail: [email protected] (J.S. Khim), Presenter. E-mail: [email protected] (S. Hong)
Study area
Distribution and concentration of PFASs
Figure 1
Sampling sites of the (a) Youngsan and (b) Nakdong River Estuaries, South Korea.
• Concentration, distribution, fate, and partitioning of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were investigated.
• Surface water were collected in artificial lakes (n = 5), inland creeks (n = 14), and estuarine areas (n = 14).
• Thirteen individual PFASs in water and suspended solids were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS.
•
•
•
•
PFASs widely distributed in waters of estuarine and coastal areas of Youngsan and Nakdong watershed.
Concentrations of PFASs were greater at inland sites and artificial lakes than in the estuarine areas.
Some inland sites seemed to be affected by industrial activities and wastewater treatment plant outfall.
It is indicated that PFASs are mainly transported to estuarine area via the inland waterways (creeks).
Fate of PFASs: Youngsan & Nakdong Estuaries
Figure 2
Concentration and distribution of (a) dissolved and (b) particulate PFASs.
Partitioning behavior of PFASs with salinity
Figure 4
Relationships between salinity and partitioning coefficients (Kd) of selected PFASs.
Figure 3
Water quality parameters and concentrations of PFASs from (a) Youngsan and (b) Nakdong River Estuaries.
Comparison to other toxic chemicals
• PFASs were transported to outer region primarily by water discharged during rainy season.
• Field-based partition coefficients (Kd) for long-chain PFASs were significantly correlated with
salinity; Kd values increased exponentially as a function of salinity.
• Due to the “salting-out” effect, PFASs were largely scavenged by adsorption onto suspended
solids and/or sediments in estuarine environments.
Relationship between Kd and C number
Table 1
Estimates of freshwater partitioning (Kd0) and adsorption salting constants (δ) for water-particle partition
data reported in the previous study (updated from Tuner and Rawling, 2001).
Field
/Lab
Salinity
SS
(mg L-1)
Kd0
(L kg-1)
δ
(L mol-1)
r2
References
PFOA
Field
0.12 – 29
8.1 – 130
2.43
1.34
0.48
This study
PFNA
Field
5.47
1.83
0.66
PFDA
Field
11.3
1.85
0.73
PFUnA
Field
12.2
1.53
0.65
PFDoA
Field
8.62
1.63
0.50
PFOS
Field
7.10
2.57
0.72
PFDS
Field
13.6
1.53
0.54
PFOA
Lab.
751
0.86
0.93
PFDA
Lab.
1006
0.94
0.99
PFUnA
Lab.
1640
1.11
0.99
PFOS
Lab.
1430
0.93
0.94
60.2
0.480
0.52
243
0.366
0.60
0.860
0.341
0.94
0.790
0.091
0.98
241
0.333
-
1.8
0.275
-
Compounds
PFASs
10 – 34
500
[1]
Organochlorines
2,2’,5,5’-Tetrachloro biphenyl
Field
2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
Field
Endrin
Lab.
Heptachlor epoxide
Lab.
0.3 – 23.8
5 – 36
~200
1000
[2]
[3]
Figure 5
Relationships between log Kd and number of carbon chains for (a) PFCAs and (b) PFSAs.
[4]
• Values for Kd of PFASs were directly proportional to the number of carbon atoms.
• Salting constants of selected PFASs were notably greater than those of other toxic substances.
• Overall, the results of the present study provided better understanding of the fate and
transport of PFASs in the zone of salinity boundary that can be used in developing fate models
of PFASs in the coastal marine environment.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Benzo(a)pyrene
Field
0 – 35
10800
Phenanthrene
Field
Pyrene
Field
~0 – 32
~100000
2.09 – 3.14
0.552
>0.88
[5]
Field
0.4 – 23.8
~250 – 300
49.9
1.08
0.75
[6]
Phthalate
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
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