THE TIMBER INDUSTRY An open note quiz tomorrow!! http://www.etsu.edu/cas s/archives/subjects/hard woods/Page1.htm 2 PHASES OF LOGGING 1880: Selective cutting: The best trees 50 cents/ft “rafting” Labor was done by mountaineers Effects of selective cutting: Didn’t alter mountain life But: Uncertainty of supply Long time Damaged wood The Boom 1890: 2nd phase 1891: Railroad from Lexington to Breathitt opens the timberlands Hundreds of thousands of acres sold to railroad and timber companies for as little as 20 cents/acre By 1900, southern Appalachia contributed 30% of total amount of hardwood timber cut in US 1920 Forestry Film http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x5za4i_1920forestry-logging-equipment-fil_tech Combining coal and timber interests became common after 1900 Exploiting both mineral and timber rights Broad form deeds A blog entry, from all people, an actress: What is the Broad Form Deed? (read completely before defining) Describe how John C.C. Mayo “worked” people to get them to sign the deed? Why would deeds separate mineral rights from ownership of land? What’s the purpose? How are families affected by broad form deeds? Explain the long-term impact. When did KY restrict broad form deeds? What is the major issue that our forests face today? 1910: machine logging begins, leading to largescale destruction of mountain forests “clear cutting” with bandsaws Effects: Great woods fires Impact on streams and creeks—floods and worthless bottom lands Destruction of mountain way of life and self-sufficiency Migration from farming to industrial life BUT…. By beginning of 20th century, a conservation movement begins Part of Progressive political movement Progress through industrial growth should be done orderly and efficiently, managing natural resources wisely Other groups, like Sierra Club, sought to abolish all logging and mining An interesting “paternalistic” approach The poor, backward mountaineers needed these educated, upper/middle class people to save the region The End The logging industry drastically reduced after WWI. And replaced by the mining companies. The timber boom was 30 years, but its effects were long-lasting and farreaching.