ANALYSIS OF LOGGING COSTS AD OPERATING THODS CF J. H. CHAMBERS & SON LIJJBER CO. Cottage Grove, Oregon (June 1936 to Lrch 193e?) by Gustav J. Krue TABLE OF CONTENTS Page GE1PRÂL BUCKING FALLING 1 6 (NFRAL) 9 HIGH-LEJ) YARD ING 13 YARDING TRACTOR YiRDING TRACTOR HIGH-LD YARD ING 22 TR!CTOR RODING 27 CATERPILLAR OPERATING COSTS 30 SWINGING 32 IOÂJJING 36 INCLI3ES 41 R! ILRO.AD TRANSPORTATION 44 DETAIUD ANALIS 50 OF LOGGIITG COSTS ILLUS TT±T IONS High-Le'd SyEtem Page 12 B1ock 20 B1ock 21 Rigged Spur Tree 26 Trctor 28 Ronding ìTorth Bend Swing 31 Louder 40 Single Lire Incline 43 GE1tPRÄL The Object The object of this report le to bring together in cycternetic form the infortion vith up to date Doug1a that I gathered nd material de1ing Fir logging method8 and coEte vhi1e vorking for the .H. Chaiber Lumber Co. in CottE'ge Grove, Oregon. I. The ¡rea The -re being logged je twenty miles coutimeEt of Cottge Croe, 'ooroering the Siusla ]Thtioi.tl ForeEt. At precint the company ovine about ten cectionE tiniler md acceEe to enough timber to mllo hm cf an in- definite period of logging. The ir, of II. peciee of timber being logged are mirily Douglac ectern Hemlock, come .Noble Fir, and a small amount Incense Cedar. size of C'peration The daily output of tuis operation varies from 9CM to feet, depending entirely upon ho 11O acceseable the loge are. At present the operation is made up of tvo eides, one side logging with iivith "donkeys", and the other side two Cletrac 80's and swinging vith a The outìu of erh loging donkey". side avermges aTout 50M feet per eight hour day. -1- III. Orgniztion of the Peronne1 J.Ji. Chamer---Preidnt Logging Supt. Cper tioni :Tood Raiirod Hookt'nder YErding Crev Lording Crew High Clim'oer Rai1rod Oper. ConEt. Section Bose Section Crew Head Erokeinan 2nd BrKeman LTrain Crew Hauling Crevr Cat' Hooktender T7Crt?! Crev :quipnient md Repair ( chinet Blrc smith 1-ied Ccrpenter Donkerr Doctor) -1ing and Bucl<in Bu11-buck-i er Cr Lv Iff Timekeeper Book.eeper [ire Protecticj Fire \rrden (Kept durin fire eon.) a -2- Iv. Labor j\ . Length of employment Ther lE little lo coInpPny work the la'oor turnover becuEe (1) thi$ yer, the entire yer ind ton nd re tre eoiial1y, ground, not just loggere live in 1ogrs trmnperted to -ìle the nd (2) to their vork dily. B. Methode of eriIplorment nd viage prment This company rune a non-union camp, upt. or by hired either by the logging and the the en are general man- ager. The men re paid by the upt., boohtender, the log ;ing picl The men Vige pricl ma paid No. a and time keeper who are are paid tvìice a month for their convenience. omevht lower than those in this section are in other ii 'ith the exception of There is no contrct vor}: done. the month. 'oy 1-iour, of Oregon and Washington. Eection rates heing paid list of wage of Ten Type of VTor i Buli-1cuck i present. t Rate on 8 hr. Basis ) 6 5G i Pi er 4 Head 4 Feconci 4 Buckers 4.50 i Rigging Slinger 5.00 6 Choker 4 7.00 Paliers Pliers Setters Chasers 4.80 4.40 4.50 -3- Pollow- No. of Men itite Type of 1ork Sniper i 2 ihit1e 4 'Donkey on 8 hr. Basis 3 60 3.60 Punks 6.00 Funcher 3.80 4 Wood Bucks 2 Hecd Locders 2 2nd Locders 4.60 i Pump Man 4. i Cc rp e ri t e r 5.00 i Mechcnic 5.00 Lo c-ornotive Mngr8. 6.00 2 Locomotive Pirerien 5.00 i Brakemii 4.90 i 2nd C-' i; T.CC 0 Brkemn 4.50 Rock Crushermen 3.60 Czterpi1ir 7.00 Drivers- 7.00 i "Cct" liookterider i Eection ] O Eection Cre 1 2upt. 3- Timekeeper 125.00 per Hooktender 150.00 per mo. 5.50 Ji'orer.n 3.60 en Approx. 50.00 per no. inc. / J -4- V. Etumpge Price At the present time this company is paying from to 41.5O per VI. stunipage. Recently the company pur- section of government timber, paying çl.5C per chsed M, M for on which logging ili begin in May. Investment Considering the size of the opertion, I would thrt the investment is extremely large, including ro-d VII. nd equipment, being about sy ri1- 3OO,COO.CO. steps in the Opertion The vork in every department is specialized from the ood buck to the hocktender. re not E;caled and graded until they reach The logs L. the pond. I The Columbia log rie is used. am going to cover the actual steps of the logging oper.tion, giving a cost analysis of euch step, folioing order: Palling .:nd Bucking Yrrd Ing (General) High-lefld 'rding Trrctor Yarding Swinging Loading Inclines Rilro-.d Transportation -5- in the FALLING AD BUCKING I. Orgrnition of the Crews The bull-buck Elect the tre to be felled nd detrniine the direction of the ftll. i crew of two frllrE do the f1ling. The bull-buck then LIarks the log lengthE for the guidance of the buc1cer who wcrk v:edge, etc. singl vith crosEcut Heed fallera and the individual buckera :re held reapon:ible for tue quality of the work. II. Stump Heights The practise is to cut the the avera;e height being about III. Log Size nd as possible, tuir.ps as lo two feet. Lengths logs averr:e from. 3l to 4 " in diameter. The avcrzge log length is 40', but near the end of the summer logs v re bc ing taken out in 80 ' to 100' The lengths. trees. In other words, the buckers just topped the the buckers was increased, and a greeter scale was taken out each day. These long logs were bucked in the pond. Thus the speed of Iv. Long Butting Long butting logs hecause tirnl:er, and it is practised coats just as no profit can be -6- considerably much to had from iill it. defective defective on V. Breakage rireekae lE reduced to a minimuru by this organizaThe ticn. verrge perce ntage of percentLge is due to the fol1o:ing This to 4.. brekage ringes from f:cts: 1. Palling done by i Windflla 3. Pellin :1re timber exprinced fallers. ucked ::hed of felling. cro.s unbuc:ked trees is generally avoided. 4. Increased vedgings are iade by fallers if necessary. L. Large trees are felled first. 6. Paliers are paid on a per hour basis. VI. Output . Paliers: 30,000 to ]axlrnurri B. Buckers: VII. 3OOO feet ïer day, per set of tvo. of 40,000 feet. 25,000 to 35,000 feet per day, per man. eah Uuuiiy one ìucker to 1e conditions dej:and. s -s set of fallers. More or Tools and Equipment R. Saws: one falling sav to each set of f& llera, length--- 8 feet. One bucking aav for each bucker, most common lengt1---7 B. Axes: one double bitted axe for each faller, pounds. C. feet. One swamping axe for each bucker, steel sledges: for driving wed;es, and 8 pounds for hucirers. -7- 3 4 to to 4 5 pounds. 10 pounds for fallers D. second growth timber E. in other than Springboards: two to eLch set of fa1ler rid even ground. four or five to the faller teel wedges: ch nd to e te sav bucker. F. necesrry in Underc'uttr: cutting the the log vahen bucking to hold underside of the fl1en to tree. VIII. Filing Elling srw. IX. done by an expert filer. is On an erge, re filed every other day. Coste Costs for falling and bucking taken over a period of five years avereged 82 cents per M, including labor, eçuiprent, wear and tear on equipment, and filing. This cost was influenced by the following factore: i. Efficiency of labor and management. 2. Scale of 3. Veather conditions. 4. Size of timber. E. Percenta::,e of breakage. 6. Density of stind, and 7. Percentge 8. Length of logs. 9. J\mOUflt 1G. 11. 12. wgcs. pecies. of defect. of windfalls. Topography. uììount of brush. Distance of work from camp. -8- Y\FD iN I. (GE11TRAL) Types of Yarding i. "Donkey" hi;h-1ed yarding. 13. Tr;ctor ytrding. 1. Tractor high-1ed yurdin. Tractor roading. 2 II. Choice of I'. ethod Topography Ynrding direction the the dope round help determine the type of yarding to it dverse slopes en relation to it nd is gener1 nrture \Then the considerably chopped up, irnoible of the it is re to use the of "be used. tractor. too rough and is is not advisable to uae tm ctors. When tractor logging is the done during rainy seuson, cute the efficiency of the tractor in half; therefore, the condition of the eoil is to e con- the element of s rrud idered. The general contour of rding. If the the ground is logs have to be taken "donkey" is used exclusively. nd hs If the a numbcr of deep gulleys, slope to the landing is down, it level or sloped dovn trac tor lE used exclusively. _oI - ground is rough eventhough the general is advisable to use the "donkeyt', but the tractor can be used. prtical1y considered in out up hill, te If the ground is to the landing, the B. Yrdirig dit rice Ysrding diEtznce influences the choice of method. The maximum economic range for "donkey" yarding is 11GO feEt, tut usually the distance yarded does not exceed In the case of tractor yarding, the yarding 10CC fet. distance dependE upon the nui:Ther of tractors used. It is the policy cf the 1oging superintendent of this company not to let the yarding distance exceed 18CC feet if posit1e. C. Timber Eize of the tim'cer has some sethod is to also h some 'be used. effect in deciding The amount what of timber per acre influence. D. Cost cost of cne method in comparison with the cost of the other method might te the final fa tor to te considcrcd. The follovdng is a comparison cf coste taken over These costs cover the yarding a period. of one year. operation only. The / : - lo- .': III. Yrding Coste ÏhiB corípany divides its The 'rding, 1oding, and swinging. not into folioving cost tot1 logging costs do include taxes, interest, or depreci&ticn. Costs 'based on 1M 'board feet. high-lead yarding "Donkey Lab O r Engineer I iremn Wo o U b u c k s Ch sers(2) r:) .0 setters(4) Whistle punk High clin'ber Puinçrna n Oil Wood 13. .18 .04 .02 .0: . () :) »ater Ho oktend er 1/ire rope Eupplies,fuel,etc. L! intenance Total .C2 to icad.) .02 " (.G:: t, (.01 n .10 n .05 ) C " Oi ) ( ( . : " " .01 .o]_ ,(' .03 n ( (.20 8 .o La'b o r "Cat" drivers(2) sving. O: Tractor yLrding Choker setters(4) to n .01 tal (.O2 (.04 (.03 (.01 (.01 .04 Pire Powder Rig-up !taintenrice To : .C, j 7ire rope ' _/ . ( Hooktender Hed rigger Cho1er J .C4 07 .09 .12 lb 06 . .07 09 .40 .90 -11- u ) ) " J t, ) f. ) .10 " ) LINES ///Gb'-L4 ¿: ',v_- \ sX5' T/'7 IIIGH-IJD Y 'RD ING I. Method pir tree A he:d i The tree iìuet be from needed. riid1y. 150 to ?0O feet high and guyed üloc'k i hund near the top of the tree. The main line the high-le&d block fitened tail tiock. or safety, by meEns of tvo inch ce riged to shunt the block slowly to .6e the strap should break. safety 1so the ground,in Adventges lift to the lojs i nd prevents hetning on stumps. B. Keeps r. Keeps irnding free of debris. los from nosing D. Docs not recuire of There of the Syster; Gives III Moving i tee1 strap or cable. ß. . high-lead run from the main line drum to hih-1ead block to i II. i into the ground. prepared 1andin:. nines Lirne Time spent in moving the engines is time lost in actual work. It takes from to 16 hours to move n engine from one setting to another, and the speed depends upon whether the engine is moved on flit is dragged on the ¿round by takes from : to 4 its oun power. crs lt usuz11y hours to move from one end of the landing to the other. -13- or of saving time, of course, is to hLve n nd to hLve one set up in the ne position One nie tho i extra engine in rdvcnce. in e;tr enine 1so prcvides the oiortunity to look over the idle nwchinery nd to put it in order. . Cost en;ines increases the cost of loing very much. The actuci cost is not io hi;h when the movinp i done by a pecil crew or iy the cre that but, as this is only a sniall clers the right of opertiori, the moving is done by the loggers theLselves. The aver ge cost of rigging up, including moving the yarder pole and 75.cO to Ç3CO.CO for "donkey", is landing pole. 4CC.00 for Hving to move . IV. Fetting the Lines i'. Method The yrdin turn line. ing road. The The crew run out the msin line and the re- is to loc:te the first yardrods, or routes, vhich the logs follov first stet usully start st the rnilroad and run in a radial direction until they run out. of the show on the other side. The strw line is then run out by hand nd fstened block rt the t.il tree t the far end of the yardto out 330 feet or iore to the in ro:.d; then it is run right or left through nother block and back to the engine. line is att,ched to the other end is reeled in on a There the end of the straw the hsul-bck line, smell drun. nd -14- Thus the 1iu1-bc1c dragged through the t1ock i back oirr the road to the yrder. then detched then re'dy 13. y meLtns trip line to the The straw line is nd the end of the nialn line , devis. of and The faEterled i engine is operation. l'or Sizes of lines 1. Main line i 2. Hau1-ick 7/8" 3. Straw line 3/8" 'i. Guylines 1" i 1/" 5. "Donk' choker lines 6 ma in line t i choker line 7. 1/4" 6 strnds, 19 vires, steel core hemp " 7 19 core wires, rope core vires, Eteel core " 7/8" " u 8. Skyline C. Types of h1ock 1. flaul-beck 'dock . V. Lfigh-leac b1oks 3. Pass line 'ticcks 4. Side "clocis Opere tien The choker settErs set the chokers on the lcg. Either the hooktender or heed riggc r signals the whistle punk t inl give to pull in the line. the lrnding vhere it the 1onder'. th sie Two is chokE::s ;:re t is drsred by the chaFer The number of logs on of the logs, conditions. unhooked i The lead or one of turn depende upon ni. of equipment, and the ground rule, one choker tt:ched to -lb- is ene butt used for rigging. ech log. to VI. Orgniztion A. of the Crevi Crew Hooktendcr Chaser Rigging Elinger \Yhistle punk r:ngjneer Two vood bucks Fireman bour choker £etter B. Duties crev do vth'tever tï6 and it upon him. the crew, He plcns the work, 0±' the The hooktender is occ&sion dencnds. in chirge of the crew, :embers 1vays clear. Division of 1Thor is not efficiency depends 1are1y 1octe rod, the instructs and ESSIStS the rigging s1iners. ssistnt. The heed rigging slinger is the hooktender's ChokEr men set the chokers on the logs and assist in Also they do generEl rigging work. chrnging the lines. The chFrr stnds engineer hn 1ning. His dut, t the to stop the is 1ndirg and signals the logs as they corne to unhook the chokers. into the A sign1 man, or thistle punk, gives the orders of the hooktender or heed rigger to the enaineer by inens of . whistle wire. VII. Equipment A. Engines ize 9x10 10x11 l0xl2 1Cnl' Size of 2oiler 48"x130" high 175 working pres. 60"xl26" high 2OO working pre. 66"x120" high worki.r' Dres. 2CC 66"xl2O" high 200# working pres. -16- Type Make Willamette Loader n TEcoma Yarder Size of Eoiler 68"x147" high SOOy working pres. 68"x147' high Size 12x13 11z1 :1dce Type Smith Yrder 7illamette working pres. 68"x147" high 2G0# workin pres. 2OO 12x14 Note: B. 11 Snubber (used on working pressures :re inclines) xirnum. Other equipment are for convenient moving. (Jost ox sleds engine 1. Logging construction of 44' sled. verages from :4bO.GC to .bOO.00, and of 56' to 64' sled, 6OO.CO. rtiey are bolts for noving and snubbing. The life oIT the sled varies witfl tI'e size of the rachine, type of country, and how the equipped vith heavy chains, rings, and. sled is built. 2. Fairleders re needed for both narrow and vide faced drum mchines. They are rounted on the front end OIT the sled. Both the Iflaln line and the haUl-bHck line }ive seper.:te fairleaders. 3. Sprk rrestr rs are required Approxixnte cost is :iO.00. . 4. Extnded fire boxes supply by laW extra hCat 5. í.11 machines hive water tanks made C. Oregon. lfl of for the boiler. wood or steel. Blocks In order to get the lines, ?i Company must g'retest efficiency have good logging out cf th blocks. There are several outstanding companies that manufacture equipment of this type. In recent years Tyler nd al1ory 'olocks have been the most popular. I sent to the Mallory Co. for illustr'tion and -i prices of b1oc's. '7 - This opertion uses becuse it obtined the be:t climber's block: size Used ?1-", opertion.) price $2O.00. generul utility block on the spar pole, or s Pc2 block. 2. High-le-d blocks: size 36"x6", once 9OO.00. hi:h_1ed Used icr 3. 1iory Co. the t'roin re sizes used by this (Note: Sizes given us price re used. The follovJin3 blocks 1. High 1i Mallory blocks, probubly system on spur pole. size l6"x3 iloving blocks: Used mainly to move engines 2OO.GO. nd 20"x3", price ind s , generzl utility block. 4. hul-bick blocks: size l4flx2t, price i1OO.00. on the htul-buck 5. Loading blocks: Used line nd s general utility block. size 14t'x2" tongline, price 14O.GO. size 14x.2fr"ioder, price :]JìO.00. onjunction with tne heel-boom end loading Used in rig. price llO.00. UEed size 22"--10x2", price l4b.00. Used. 6. Boom-swing blocks: size 12"x2", on the lo-ding rig. rl. Loding in jack: conjunction with tiie counter bLtlnce on the boom- swing. 8. Tree-shoe: size 48"x3", price 175.00. Used on the skyline. . Crriige: size l6'tx4", price 82b.OU. line for the North Bend system. -1 8- Used. on sky- 10. a11 block: size 18"x2", price 47b.00. U8ed in conjunction with the North bend system. The ;bove drices are Irom the catalogue, but this company recieves a discount oí 20% on 20%, which would cut the price almost in hail. -19- HAUL-BACK BOOM- SWING BLOCK -20- SKYLINE CARRIAGE LOADING BLOCK ACK LOADING BLOCK TREE SHOE TRACTOR YARD ING T]-ACTOR HIGH-IiAD YARDING I. Method One of the most important and efficient units oper. tion mounted t m.chine it with u set of double drums With this the re.:r for high-lead logging. is reltively simple and cheap loction and build ne 5O Cletrac i in this up decks. to move to a The operation of tills machine results in shorter haUls and a saving on main and practically eliminates fire line and haul-in costE hazard. The manner in which the system is worked is very simpie. While the "tractor donkey" is rigging up and start- ing to build up out a rod to cold deck, the cLterpi11ar the new set up. necessury to do thiE. s a "6O chunks Sometimes it isn't spar tree is rigged up next to the railroad track, and the loes are loaded directly from the deck onto trucks by u railroad heel-boom (rune. II. Locating the Setting The logging boss goes through a tract of timber and decides first where he will piace the tractor unit and marks the spar trees so that the fallers will not fell them. The timber is then felled to lead into the spar pole. The "tractor donkeyt unit then moves into the setting, the first operation being to tie tue unit down. This is done by locating a convenient stump, which is sawed off close to the ground so tue tractor can back over it. atticÌied to botki end. or tìe m,in drum shfts, nd this line is then run under sever1 tree roots nd tightened, the drums being used for this operation. When the cble is tight enou:;h, it is spiked to the stump, nd the unit is reidy to rig up. A III. cnble i Rigging the Tree A. Method high climber The first climbs to the top or the spar tree, tking a 3/8" rntni1 pass line, which is used to hoist the pase Une block and strap. These tie rnkes fast to the top of the tree. The mnilu rope is then threaded is lowered to the ground. strawline is uttached, tnd it is pulleu up through the block, and the There a 1/" end. through the block and back to the drum. After the pass line block is hung, trie next step is to set the guy lines. The lines ure hoisted into position by the pss line nd are made f:- t to the tree neLr the top. Then they re made fast to notched stumps and pulled t i gli t by the t rs e tor drums. The min line blocks and the haul-back blocks are hung in the smne mnner as are the guy lines. These blocks are located aS high as possible on the spar pole so s to et the full effect of a high-lead system. The lines re B. strung the sJìe way aS the lines on a regular "donkeyT' high-lead system are strung. Sizes of rigging Main line and chokers l"--6 strands, 19 wires steel core _fl - 1/2"--6 strunds, 19 vìires Hau1-bick line 1"--6 Guy lines IV. " Mein spar tree block 18" Haul-beck spur tree block 10" Tail tree blocks 12" 19 " steel core hemp core Output The maximum distnnce that is logged by the Cletruc 40 verges around und hructEr or bOO feet, depending upon the "80" shos of the ground. The output per dy on this type of set up about 50M or 60M feet of timber. uverges This figure depends upon the size of the timber being logged und the type of country. V. Orgunization of the Crew The following men ure necessury to run this set up. high climber Hooktender "Cet skinner u Chser Three choker setters Rigger VI. Equipment A. Two R D 8 Diesel Cletrucs, yarding drums B. nd ecuipped with Pacific Cur Co. necessry "cat" logging equipment. One Csterpil1r "6G", equipped with u Le Tourneau "Bu11doer-". roads This muchine is used mu.n1y ior building nd chunking out tor rovding and swinging set ups. -24- VII. Cost Cost of operating this unit is deterÀined by the 1011oWlflg fictors. L bor .06 per Hooktender Cat" driver M .07 iigger .Oh Choker setters() .12 Chtser Ob High clirner Wire rope .lh Minten8nce 3() upp1ies, fuel, .10 etc. Powder .01 Misce11;neoU .04 TOtc1 .99 -25- per M - V 2y'07g- ?/Y/7 - S7/v,7 'x7 72 7A-(77 -c7777 /C7 7,V/7 -s5b' '-754"4' t71 72 ' '"' TRACTOR I. ROADII'TG Method Conidrb1e trctor this op6ration. It roLiding, or skidding, ckiep, is a quick, Hod.ing con1st from the woods to hot deck from where they directly to the 1ndiri. rdin of 1ys The tiooktender nd then 1os done by nd rlexible method of loL;4n. roads with the "6C i - the logs re swung out his off the area with the D 8's. J This method is used only when off around oi high-lead system as a roded, off of swing, roding ìre. dded "donkey" setting. distìncc of lbOO' 2000' with logging machines. tiie the logs 11 the renninder of this the cost of sn we're Then using (900' to 1100'). the lines been logged. rtdius of the length "donkey" setting in ¿t hs re n "donkey" re logged, or The method stves In some ctseE we tnd swinging a distance The total distence t1it the logs were being transported to the landing being :bout 3500'. II. Output 7ith this combination of two "cats" and "donkey" swing, the operation gets aS much aS lOOM feet of logs per day when logging conditions III. are good. 0rgsniztion of the Crew The crew consists of the following men. Hooktender 't" driver "Cat" driver for bulldozer pour choker setters -2'?- ws worked in high-lead, one North Rough sketch to show how tractor roading conjunction with two Bend swing. swing set-ups oe (Sketch is not drawn to scale.) 500 4OO y _ C ¿.4 ,4O3 IV. Cost Fo11oving factors determine cost of oper.ting this unit. Lìb or :ooktender .06 per "Cat" drivers() .12 Choker setters(4) .16 M "Cat" driver for bull do z e r VIire rope .07 intenance .4Q Supplies, fuel, etc. Tot1 Tote: .OY.96 per M This cost coes not include fixed chares. -29- CPT7RFILLAR OITR\TING COSTS OR iACHfl RATES Carge/ Chre/ Season Day (Lire b yrs.26O dtys/yer) I. iixed Charges for Operation A. Depreciation Initi1 cost -- 11,COO per unit. :2,0OO b.4ô (Including drums, bull-ctozer,etc.) Life of unit-- b years. B. Interest Average nnu1 mv. I+L) 462.00 1.?'? 2 2 C. D. ___ Fire Ïnsurnce-- /4 or nnu1 mv. 4.bO 4c/ O Otrier Risks-264.00 E. Taxes-- II. OperH.ting A. ÖÓCU Supp1ie of " .19 1.lb 132.00 .bO 14.0? C1ir:es 50 g1. t .0? per ;1. ---------------- i qt. t .15 per qt. Grese ------------- bf, t .0? per Wire Rope nd riging Misc. Iepir parts (estiniatea) Diesel Fuel --------- 5.50 .15 Oil 2.26 .50 for three tractors "ctt drivers t Y.0O per dy ------ 21.00 choler setters t 4.4O per dy -- 22.00 hooktender t 7.00 per thy --------- ?.00 5O .00 '1cts" ¿tt fl1.32 per dcy ------------ 65.9b Tot1 Mctchine Rate for CctS" 115.9b B. Labor 3 S 1 .5 Aver.ge zimount of wor. done each day-10 0M 1.lÓ cost per M. 100M feet. A I t r ki CORVALUS, ORGO1 OREGON STATE COLLEC SCHOOL Ì SW ING ING I. Overhead Because t1-ii 'iti the rourhneE 01' or some region, the operttion does much the orthBend vin. in one of the ground in o:t its wining tne uperinten- vitki tue proiJiem of wingin timber of the rde he 45' grde. it the 10cc reet up hiE hi;h-1ed setting; then, uin the aine spar pole, cient w confronted be - st North Bend Ewing to the top of the ¿rede. With the high-icEd syteni nd the ewing, the log6 were trEr1orted distance of 2OO feet. t the top they viere he rigged lo-ded onto trucks nd snubbing engine. yore ws handled in this let down 35OO foot incline by thn four million feet timber manner. 01. II. North A. Bend System Rigging R line fld specLi type then anciiored to e twips, or tree it wìien the system spLr tree ti'e my 1ed from a 1 is lowered. haul-in line is ttched to the The to The et o1 Liock nd tck1e is used to t!ie line, which is neitaer rLiseU nor lowered en?ine. the tighten carrie and head leed block is hung. B. standing line. ti1 rrom tiie ray be EtretckLed drum on the cLrrige rides o1 the strip, is etthed from The to loo to the tree, crrige. the bight of in hu1-bck line is OO feet from the Between the line, run out along min line, nd czrrige. Ecuipnent 1. Bgine used Lines 11 X 13 is an used are: Standing main line Ilaul-betek line Haul- in rrìain 3. Carriage 1 hs inc bottom is 1ed. -re 1 1/4" 1 1/4" is strongly constructed. large hook: on which lines may be two sheaves and a hung. (See section 4. Blocks 2" 7/8" lines Choker On the high-lead. yurder. on b1ock.) prsctically the rding. seme aS those used in nigh- C. Output Sometimes thiE; system much pr day. reet of timber is hauled i2:o: by The output depends upon the pre- -vriling conditions, such aS the size of logs, amount of line and "donkeyt1 trouble, und number ci' logs per turn. D. Cost coit of overhead svinging depends The of the logs being swung, distance cf turn. LE upon swing, the volume and time per 1so determined by the following factors. Cost is OT 1 per Jngineer .Qb Fir emn .04 Wood bucks(2) .07 High climber .04 Hooktínder .O2; (.O2 Cbsers(3) .13 Pumpmun .01 (.02 .01 ' Wire rope .10 .15 .Ob " Oil .02 (.02 .02 " .04 (.04 .02 " Jater .0 (.03 .01 F ire .01 Powder .01 (.01 (.01 dig-up .05 (.05 .02 Minteneìnce . ( .30 .10 Ti scel1neous .05 /o od To t i :O (.02 yarding .87 per -34- M M .02 loading) t, t! Q t " ) III. High-1ed Swinging j;. :ethod Coniderb1e Einging The rig-up. high-1ed swing i ucd The with caterpillar logging. only in conjunction rincip1e in high-lead thut in yarding, except that swinging is the same swing road is built by blasting out J3. high-1ed 1so done vith i itumps, . etc. Output Cutput ìverge from 100 to 110M feet per day, depend- Ing upon Elze of timber dnd swinging conditions. C. Cost The cost for high-lead swinging is averaged ì, t .80 per and is determined by the following fctors. Labor Engineer .05 Piremn .01 7ood buckE(S) .07 Cher(3) .13 High climber .02 O2 yarding .02 loading) Pumpman .01 .02 " .01 " ) Hooktender .C2 (.02k " .02k " ) Rig-up .05 (.05 " .Cb " ) Pire rope .15 (.10 20 ainteflafl(e ( . 50 " .Ob ) 1G ) ) . Powder .01 (.61 " Fire iscellaneou .01 .05 (.01 " .01 o3 " . Vi& t e r . Oil Wo od o ( .0 04 Total ( - ( . .02 04 . 90fr per M -35- 1 " ) oi .05 02 t' ) n ) LOADING I. Method re There opertor. 1odin outfit that number oí rna11 i diírerent methode uEed by 1og on an ver:e of 10011 feet of' timber per day finds l'ieel-boom 1oder tkie most efficient type and 1oveFt in cost to oper;te. This operetiori ue a heel-booia e;c1usive1y for ll sicte. ïJven the locomotive crzne is equipped witn kieel-boorii. 1'xperience has proven tiiLt it is dvntgeous to ue tills tctors. type of 1otder because of the fo11ovii tyfe of timber beinç ìoLed. Cheap coEt of loading with this method. Speed and esse vith viiiich a heel-boom loader 1. Size 2 3. nd handled. 4. Ease with which the pole to nother. 5. Lower labor II. Construction The nitely of may be boom mty be moved from one spar ost. 1300m oom consist 0f a 10" in diameter pair of heivy and 50' long. tiin'oer apprOxi- These two timbers re p1ced 4' apRrt and braced about every 10' with b" timbers. 1rom the tong end of the boom to about /3 01 the way from the tong end, 30# rails are laid. parallel to the boom timbers and spiked to the braces. The purpose of this type of heel to the spiked with boom. construction is to The whole boom bolt-. -36- fraiie give is a sturdy cabled nd oom construction Sketch showing III. nd Hanging Stringing Lines The room is hung in oom p1ce b forked ends on the rear of the the spr u logging engine, boor!1 being fitted &rotnd The boom is usually hupg about pole. feet from the baEe of the tree. the The hau1-baci 6 or line is run from the haul-Tjck drum on the engine through t near the top on the heud sptr tree, then through strapped on a stump some distance from the pole rsctly opposite the boom. .li'rom 7 b1ocI block nd ai- this block on the stump the line is spiked to the end of the boom. The counter-blnced line, which returns spiked to the other side bnck line :nd is oi then run through a block strapped to line is p'ssed through przllel This guy line tor-ienced is the hoom opposite the haul- stump opposite the hul-b:ck stump. nd is run the boon., i. rom this stump the block neLr the top of the pole to a guy line. 1-is a small carriage to which the coun- line is attached. The C: rrige Lias one or two medium sized logs hung from it so that a counter- balanced wei;kÀt is- made to return the hooni. The main line is run from its drum on the engine, through on the he.d spur tree, to . block block on the end of the boom and then to the tongs. -3,1- IV. Opertion The 1ietd. to be loaded, ¿:gz:inst the so that the sings min been set in position, line dolNn. the second the log the log vi11 heel rid tile the itter the log has 1oder unhooks the tongs, s1&ckened,nd the boom origin&l position hy ori the boom into 1Dosition over the car; lets the log then the the hul-bsc:k is short end oÍ The mein line lifts the log, boorn. haul-Tj:ck line V. off center loader places the ton is returned to its counter-bLiriced line. Output Jith crs per dy, depending upon to 14 tnd the heel-boom loader the operation loads from 10 the vilbility of good bunker logs. lotd is 9500 feet of timher. VI. Equipment i. Lines Hiul-back line 7/8" Counter-b:i1anced line 7/5" Cuy lines i 1/b" in line 1 1/4" Boom swing lines 3. 1 1/4" Blocks 3our lb X 2 the size of the logs boom swing blocks One 14 x 2 lo'ding block -38- The verge C. Other equipment pair Cne 0±' One 14 x 2 tongs. carriage jack iiitÌi tong line attactunent. 24" 1oadin VII. Organization oi the Crev The operting labor constïtutes the heaviest item exDense, must be s the men paid a good pîrticu1rly skilled. conjunction vdth He'd re 1oder Second loading vage CI' becaue they The ±'o11oving men work in boom. Loading "donkey" engineer fireman loader TIII. Cost The lozding cost consists of the following items. La r Loaders() .12 per Hooktender .O Engineer .05 Pireman .04 High climber .O.-. :Pumpmd.n . bO 01 iaintenance l() 7ire rope .Oi ood í)0, Cil ")l í)1 .02 Water Fire EULg-up Tot1 M (.O2 (.0 ( . Cl (.20 (.10 (.04 (.c2 ( .'3 (.01 (.05 .48 per -3 j - swinging " " " " ' " " .O2 .0. C yarding) " j T " .30 " ) .04 " ) .02 " j " ) " ) . .15 .03 .03 .05 j -s i//A/ //'( &?O/-7 ¿04 9 E, Q(JV coi're z__-,\,,__ 70 C -i -7z'ei INC I. ìetJìod miE operation frecuently truc. of t : 12" boiler. pecil with 6 incline hihcr elevation snubbing engine lete the loaded mi.n line. the down siri1e lane c timber frOm incline in tr:nport±n to the enr1oy cr nd with the saine line pulls up another his engine hais The main drum i type of rtke. i x l4 fitted Tiae cïlinders wit±ì nd 10" s1irt line used is a x 19 hemp core. The incline wnich nd had an long of OO' ner ws in use this last suimner averge grade of 332. One ws stretch the top on the incline had a maximum grade of 50%. II. Output cars let down this incline averged to 12 per day. iverage load wns about 9000' The nunfcr of from 1G round timr er cr. for r load to be lowered mt' trip took from 25 to 30 minutes and a This time included unhooking set of trucks returned. and hooking of trucks. III. Cost The average cost of constructing an incline, grading and la;;ing of steel, is ,,1.00 cost is determined by the Operating -41- per including lineal foot. following factors. L bor 7nrineer .05 per Fireman .04 Brkemen(2) .OY Wire rope .04 Tter .01 Liintenance .04 Oil .01 Wood 01 :riscellneous Tot1 .32 per -4 - E INGLE-LIIíF IITC LINE The snuLher 1et the full bringe up cr i down nd et of empty trucks. This type of nu'bber Êysteni ithe principl type used by this operation. hOI II -43- RAIIOAD TRANSPORTATION the present time this operation has approximately At miles of railroad trc, including spurs and main line. All of the tixAer logged is transported by rail. As the section crew worked all summer laying nev steel, I WaS ble to get considerable information on the construetion of logging r;ilrouds, wlaich represent u large and imDortnt investment. 30 I. Construction of hui1ro;d A. LocLtion The iìOt 1oction of the main line and spurs is one of the iportunt steps in loca tion Ìflay in a logging operation. P mistaice spell disaster. Juctors to ie considered when locating a line re follows. 1. iuiiount of timber to be htndled. . Length of time line is to be used. Amount of trrfic tht is to pass over the line. 4. Speed With VIIt1CIi timber is to be removed. s . 5. Type of 6. B. rolling equipment ?irst cot und motive power usd. of building road. Rights of wy mt lesst oWned lend. 10 of this rilroad Eurchasing rights of expense. -44- vas built over privately way meant an added C. Grdes the zind curves conEtruction c1ktricter of the road, The maximum on this road. grde nd curve t;pe of motive is 3, be L vry vìltíi tke power to be used, taken out. nd the nîtximurn curve of the roid is 50 does not exceed grtde timber to end the length of D. 0± n adverse is 20° grade, which 2fr%. Tres ties On the rnin hve heen line, found to trestles !a.ve been used where they even thou be cheaper than fills, replcement is necessary aíter a period of 15 or 20 years. On the spur lines, trestles are used except where minor :1l trestles are of the fru±ie-bent fills cn be made. type. The cost of building a trestle ranges from $2.50 to 5.00 per foot, depending UOfl the following factors. 1. height 2. Length 3. Type of soil 4. Type of trestle j. Crossties The number of f ties IDer mile depends UOfl the following etors. 1. Ch?r;cter of the roadbed 2. Size of the rail 3. VJei2ht of locomotive 4. Grrde of ties Cn the svernge hout 15 ties -45- sTe used to s 30' rail. The size of ties vn ties are used exclusively. used i r,t On the rualn line all x 8" x 8'. used, but on spur lines and inclines and cull ties 3 Ri1s It the has been found that the use of heavy rails pys in long run because they depreci,te less in use, and the' can be used on They are bolted together with and fastened ang1e.-br vodbeds with less ties. :uoor 60# rails ure used. G. ties are used. re . l to the crossties with 5k" spi}:es. Laying Steel laying is 1. 11 done by hand. The operations are: Loading the ties, rails, etc. Unloading cnd placing in position . 4. H. Jointing the. rails Eallasting Cost Total cost per i:i1e of lagring this road was averaged at This figure including the following. l5,5OO. Jngineering 400 . ; 5,600 Construction (Clearing right of Trestle ay, grading, etc.) luilciing 2,000 Track 1aring Ballasting ,00O i' e/) / 4,500 e/-ti Total 415,000 per mile I -46- i-° II. Equipment A. Locomotive ireent the compny enine. oper'ting tvo rod lE 1.uilt Ly the inericbn Locomotive vork. The built in 198. The 1are engine veigh 115 tons and v: Both re Bm11er engine, which Although these engines ¿re woOd burners, be changed it ruch The r to ore economic1 1re engine to burn wood. is used for y.rd switching and hiu1- nd dey, In ±. tke is used to the the Liii. ords, it. is sm11 The loco- loggers to ¿nd from vork e-ch haul equipment ¿nd supplies to to other they can both The operators have found fuel-oil burners. Ing logs fron: the operation to motive iui1t in 1900. 65 tons, veigIis the opertion. gener1 utility engine. C:rs This opertion uses ri1roìd trucks consisting of two A p;drs cf vtheels upon which is set a steel frame. steel swivel bunk 9T' long tween the pairs of vthels. with is i:ounted on the frame be- Steel hunk blocks, tied on ch;ins, keep the logs from slipping off the bunks. Trucks aire equipped with hand brakes and automatic couplers. Forty sets of trucks re kept in operation. crrying cepcity ranges from 60,000# of equal lengths re selected -47.- for The to 75,000g. a given lo:d. Logs C. Other eçuipment oper?tion 10 The 1. Tyo foi1oin. pE'ec1er tnk Tvc our 3. the emp1oy carE f1t o' r for çcnEtruction IlL Opertion c;rs are taken froid tiie vwodE ezch dy. The lib ton engine tkeE out lb eniptieE in the 1:iorning cnd returns to the L±ill vith 1h 1odE in the afternoon. The vcr3e amount of tirJ:er Iiu1ed out in this ranner runs round 110M feet per thìy. In this oper:tion one locomotive is $uflicient .s the hu1ing nd Ewitching re concerned, but the m11 Ori the ver.ige only 15 fr engine flCEE to fuel coEt i low lE Lid the conEtruction crew. i uEed. 'he tencier re filled during the night at the iiil1, ,nd one tender full of wood l'EtE for u whole dy's run. The E. 1l wood IV. Crev for 115 ton locomotive Head br.kernn Jngineer Piremn Second trakeman Crew for 60 ton locoì±otive A. Crew B. :-ngineer Fireman Br akeriian V. Cost Cost per M for the ri1rod tot&i.1 Hsuling crew Linten;nce of i,in line " spur lines logring U line nd spur on .10 .04 crs Deprecition---rnin line Trin operation operation i .06 per M. ;in .37 .70 lines Depreci'tion---i.R.equîpLLcnt Tot1 -49-. .08 1.55 per H fo11os. D1TAIUD ANALYSIS C LCGGING COSTS Jinuiry i to Nrch 1, 1937 Per N feet 'ooard resure. Interest Note: When nd t&xes are not included. incline i uced, add .3 "Donkey" logging Woods Cost Fl1ing and lucking Rigging per N to eich. "C t .52 .12 hed Yarding Lo ding Swinging Wire rope Fuel t'nd supplicE . .82 .07 .94 .48 .88 .12 . 09 1.20 .45 .55 .30 .12 t' Tot1 logging ¿ )) 3 40 iailroad Operation Hauling crew 1Lintenance 1ain line spur line " logging cars Deprec. main line Train opere. tion R.R. equipment deprec. Total Gener-'l Logging 1L) z (' .10 .10 .04 .04 ':Ç . .37 r .37 (' t'.. .8 .05 1.55 :xpense Supervision Industrial insurance Other insurrnce Fire protection Deprec. logging equip. .10 .11 .06 .05 .15 .15 .05 Sb op Sciling Office expene .10 .09 .05 .03 .15 .10 .05 .04 .09 .04 .09 Fliscelirneous To tal O.80 Grand Total -50-. ;6.27 per 0.70 Ii 5.65 per M ___ -- . . .