Bell Work

Bell Work
• What do you think it means to be
industrialized? Can you give an example of a
country that is, and one that is not?
The Industrial Revolution
(But really ongoing)
Map of LDCs-- MDCs
• I can explain the causes of the Industrial
• I can analyze how society changed because of
the Industrial Revolution.
Industrial Revolution
• The slow shift in production from simple hand
tools to complex machines.
– A shift from an agricultural to a manufacturing
economy (primary to secondary sector)
– A shift from rural to urban
• Improved farming methods
– Crop rotation, turnips to restore soil, seed drill,
crossbreeding of livestock
– Enclosure: open farmlands enclosed into more
productive fields.
• New technology
– James Watt – steam engine- became the key
power source of the IR.
– Improved iron- used for the construction of
machines and steam engines
The Seed Drill
The Steam Engine
World’s First Iron Bridge, 1779
The Textile Industry
• “The Cottage Industry” – the world’s first
mechanized industry
• High demand for cloth – raw cotton was
distributed to peasant families who spun it
into thread and then wove thread into cloth in
their homes.
– Small wages for workers, big profits for
Textile Industry Inventions
• John Kay – flying shuttle
• James Hargreaves – spinning jenny
• Richard Arkwright – water frame
– Main Idea: New machines were too big for
homes. New buildings were built to house them.
– “Factories” – located near rivers
• Power, transportation
– Production increased exponentially. Completely
changed the economies and societies of Europe.
The Transportation Revolution
• First steam locomotive: 1804 – traveled 2.5
• 1829-The Rocket – 16 mph, but still killed a
member of the British Cabinet not paying
attention on its debut
• World’s first railroad: The Liverpool-toManchester opened in 1830.
• By 1860, trains were moving 60mph.
• New farming techniques and mass production
of goods put farmers and skilled craftsman out
of work.
• Migrated to factory towns in search of work.
– City population exploded
• Ex: Manchester: 17,000 in 1750; 70,000 by 1800
– Living conditions horrible
– Overcrowding, entire families slept in 1 room
– No police, fire, health, water, or sanitation
Living Conditions
• Sewage ran through the streets
• “Londoners living near the Thames River kept
their doors and windows closed year-round
due to the smell of the river”
• The Romantic poet Lord Byron was known to
“relieve himself” in hotel hallways because
bathrooms were so dirty.
Indoor Bathrooms aka Earth Closets
Life in Factories
• 12-16 hour workdays
• No mandatory breaks
• No safety devices on
• No disability or workers
comp or insurance…if
you got sick or injured,
you just lost your job
• Employers preferred
women and children
• Paid them less
• Easier to manage
• Smaller hands