The English martyrs

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† The word of God was made flesh

S O C I E T A S

D O C T R I N

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C H R I S T I A N Æ

The

English

Martyrs

The English Martyrs

1534 onwards

A large number of Catholics priests, religious, lay people who where executed under the reign of King Henry VIII or

Queen Elizabeth I …

…for openly proclaiming and defending their Roman

Catholic faith in different ways.

The English Martyrs

HENRY VIII

Married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon (Spain)

Quarrelled with Church and remarried.

Had daughter

– Elizabeth

Had a son

– Edward – from third marriage to Anne Seymour

After Henry's death, Edward ruled from 1547 to

1553 (aged 10 to 16), and was Protestant.

After his death, Mary (born 1516) ruled from 1553 to 1558, and was Roman Catholic.

The English Martyrs

QUEEN ELIZABETH I

Ruled from 1558 to 1601, at first tried to be a moderate Protestant, to avoid conflict .

In 1570 Pope issued some new rules for Catholics only to take part in Latin mass and receive sacraments from catholic priests and not recognizing Queen

Elizabeth.

English government reacted by declaring that the saying of Mass in Latin was treason.

Persecution started.

The English Martyrs

EARLIER CLASSIFICATION

Blessed (Beati)

- 63, priests, religious or lay people.

Venerables

Many other people who died heroically.

Their lives were so retired and obscure that there is generally but little known about them.

The forty-four dilati

Those "put off" for further proof. Many who perished after a comparatively short period of imprisonment, though definite proof of their death is not available.

The prætermissi (242)

- Martyrs on the scaffold.

- Martyrs in chains.

The eleven bishops : left to die in prison.

The English Martyrs

CANONISED SAINTS

In 1970 Pope Paul VI Canonised 40 of the English Martyrs (33 English; 7

Welsh)

– some clergy, some lay people who suffered martyrdom between 1535 and 1679.

19 men and women who belonged to religious orders.

14 secular priests.

4 laymen.

3 lay women.

The English Martyrs

CANONISED SAINTS

Members of Religious Orders

Saint John Haughton,

Saint Robert Lawrence,

Saint Augustine Webster,

Saint Richard Reynolds,

Saint John Stone,

Saint Edmund Campion,

Saint Robert Southwell,

Saint Henry Walpole,

Saint John Jones,

Saint Nicholas Owen,

Saint Thomas Garnet,

Saint John Roberts,

Saint Edmund Arrowsmith,

Saint Ambrose Bartlow,

Saint Alban Roe [Rowe],

Saint Henry Morse,

Saint Philip Evans,

Saint John Wall,

Saint David Lewis, priest, Carthusian monk; d. Tyburn, May 4, 1535.

priest, Carthusian monk; d. Tyburn, May 4, 1535.

priest, Carthusian monk; d. Tyburn, May 4, 1535.

priest, Bridgettine monk; d. Tyburn, May 4, 1535.

priest, Augustinian monk; d. Canterbury, no later 1939.

priest, cond. for fictitious plot; d. Tyburn, Dec. 1, 1581.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Feb. 21, 1595.

condemned for being a priest; d. Warwick, Aug. 13, 1595.

Franciscan cond. for being a priest; d. Southwark, July 12, 1598.

Jesuit, Bro.; died from torture, Tower Lond., March 2, 1606.

Jesuit priest, cond. for priesthood; d. Tyburn, June 23, 1608.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Dec. 10, 1610.

condemned for being a priest; "popery"; d. Lancaster, Aug. 28, 1628.

condemned for being a priest; d. Lancaster, Sept. 10, 1641.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Jan 31, 1642.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Feb. 1, 1645.

condemned for being a priest; d. Cardiff, Wales, July 22, 1679.

condemned for being a priest; d. Worchester, Aug. 22, 1679.

condemned for being a priest; d. Usk, Aug. 27, 1679.

The English Martyrs

CANONISED SAINTS

Secular priests and lay people

Saint Cuthbert Mayne,

Saint Ralph Sherwin,

Saint Alexander Briant,

Saint John Payne,

Saint Luke Kirby,

Saint Richard Gwyn,

Saint Margaret Clitherow,

Saint Margaret Ward,

Saint Edmund Gennings,

Saint Swithun Wells,

Saint Eustace White,

Saint Polydore Plasden,

Saint John Boste,

Saint Philip Howard,

Saint John Rigby,

Saint Anne Line,

Saint John Almond,

Saint John Southworth,

Saint John Plessington,

Saint John Lloyd,

Saint John Kemble, priest, cond. under Act of Supremacy; d. Launceston, Nov. 30, 1577.

priest, cond. for fictitious plot; d. Tyburn, Dec. 1, 1581.

priest, cond. for fictitious plot; d. Tyburn, Dec. 1, 1581.

priest, cond. for fictitious plot; d. Chelmsford, April 2, 1582.

priest, cond. for fictitious plot; d. Tyburn, May 30, 1582.

layman, schoolmaster; d. Wrexham, Oct. 17, 1584.

lay convert, aided priests; pressed to death, York, Mar. 25, 1586.

laywoman, cond. for resc. a priest; hanged, Tyburn, Aug. 30, 1588.

condemned for being a priest; d. Gray's Inn Fields, Dec. 10, 1591.

layman, hanged for sheltering Gennings; d. same place, day also.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Dec. 10, 1591.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Dec. 10, 1591.

condemned for being a priest; d. Durham, July 24, 1594.

Earl of Arundel, cond. for reconc. with Church; d. Lond., Oct. 10, 1595.

layman, cond. for reconc. with Church; d. Southwark, June 21, 1600.

laywoman, hanged for harb. priests; d. Tyburn, Feb. 27, 1601.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, Dec. 5, 1612.

condemned for being a priest; d. Tyburn, June 28, 1654.

condemned for being a priest; d. Chester, July 19, 1679.

condemned for being a priest; d. Cardiff, Wales, July 22, 1679.

condemned for being a priest; d. Hereford, Aug. 22, 1679.

The English Martyrs

ST NICHOLAS OWEN

Born around 1550.

Devoutly Catholic family.

Grew up in the midst of the Penal Laws.

Became a carpenter.

For many years he built hiding-places for priests in the homes of Catholic families.

Became a member of the Society of Jesus as a lay brother.

First arrested in 1582 after the execution of

Edmund Campion, for publicly proclaiming that martyr's innocence, but was later released.

The English Martyrs

ST NICHOLAS OWEN

Arrested again in 1594 and tortured.

Arrested again in 1606 in

Worcestershire.

Submitted to terrible "examinations" on the Topcliffe rack.

Died under torture without betraying any secret in 1606.

Feastday: 22 nd

March.

The English Martyrs

ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL

Born c. 1561; brought up a Catholic.

Moved to Paris.

In 1580 he joined the Society of Jesus after a two-year novitiate passed mostly at Tournai, France.

Prefect of studies in the Venerable English College at Rome

Ordained priest in 1584.

Sent to England in 1586 as a Jesuit missionary

Also became a religious poet/writer.

The English Martyrs

ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL

Arrested after six years working with catholic families.

Repeatedly put to the torture in the vain hope of extracting evidence about other priests.

Imprisoned for three years in the

Tower of London

– tortured ten times.

Moved to ‘hole’ in Newgate prison.

The English Martyrs

ST ROBERT SOUTHWALL

Accused of treason sentenced to death.

Hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn on

20 th

February 20, 1595.

The English Martyrs

ST MARGARET CLITHEROW

"The Pearl of York": Born as Margaret

Middleton (York, c. 1556).

1571 married to John Clitherow

– a butcher who later became chamberlain of York.

Became a Roman Catholic at age 18.

During this time of Elizabeth’s reign laws were being passed, forbidding the Catholic mass and other faith practices.

The English Martyrs

ST MARGARET CLITHEROW

Had three children, the third probably while she was in prison.

She regularly held Masses in her home in the Shambles in York. conflict of loyalties: religion and husband/family

“Behind all her gaiety, she lived with a sword in her heart”

The English Martyrs

ST MARGARET CLITHEROW

In 1586, she was arrested and accused in court for the crime of harbouring Roman Catholic priests.

Margaret Clitherow was martyred at the age of around 33 in 1586 - put to death by being crushed under a large door loaded with heavy weights.

Feastday: 26 th

March.

† The word of God was made flesh

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