Proportion Misc. Grab Bag Ratios Intro 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500 A random event characterized as either a “success” or a “failure”. What is a “Bernoulli trial”? The proportion of individuals with a condition at a point in time. What is “prevalence”? One minus p-hat. What is q-hat? This symbol represents the proportion in the population. What is parameter p? This rule is used to determine whether a z statistic can be use to test a proportion. What is the “npq rule”? Shows the extent to which the sample mean difference would take on different values with repeated samples of the same size. What is the standard error of the mean difference? The characteristics of a sampling distributions that allow for inference. What are its assumed “distributional conditions”? The hypothetical distribution of p̂ upon repeated samples. What is the sampling distribution of p̂ ? The standard deviation of p̂ (a measure of its precision) What is the standard error of p̂ ? Subtracting the incidence in the unexposed group from that of the exposed group. What is risk difference? The hypothetical distribution of p-hat1 minus p-hat2 upon repeated samples. What is the sampling distribution of p̂ 1 - p̂ 2? The standard deviation of the sampling distribution of the difference of proportions (measures precision of the estimate) What is the standard error of pˆ1 pˆ 2 The symbol used to denote total number of successes divided by the total number of observations in two samples. What is p̂ pooled ? This is the complement of alpha. What is the confidence (1-α)? A statistical test in which the alternative hypothesis prespecifies the direction of the difference. What is the one-sided test? The alpha level at which we would reject the null hypothesis. What is significance level? The type of error that occurs with rejection of a true null hypothesis. What is Type I Error? The type of error that comes with retaining an incorrect null hypothesis. What is Type II error? Denotes the probability of a type II error. What is beta (ß)? The complement of ß: the probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis. What is the power (1-ß)? A numerical value calculated from data in a sample. What is a statistic? The hypothetical distribution of a mean that would occur from repeated SRSs of size n from the same population. What is the sampling distribution of the mean (SDM)? This statistic indicates how much a particular sample mean is likely to differ from the population mean. What is the standard error of the mean? DOUBLE JEOPARDY! Just kidding! (Pick another slide.) The larger the sample, the more likely the sample mean will be about equal to the population mean. What is the “law of large numbers”?