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Scientific Methodology Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. 1 Why do research? What is the value of research? 2 Types of Research Descriptive Methods Surveys Naturalistic Observation – e.g. Jane Goodall Clinical Method Case Study, e.g. Freud Advantages? Disadvantages? 3 Other Types of Studies Longitudinal, e.g. etiology of a psychiatric disorder. National Institute of Mental Health National Institute of Health Cross Sectional, e.g. impact of driving with age? 4 Variables Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Variables IV, DV, CV 5 Ethics The American Psychological Association (APA) Protection from physical and mental harm. Assurance that research is voluntary. Informed consent. Deception – limited. 6 Correlation What is a correlational study? What does correlation measure? -1 through +1. Zero Example: drug study 7 Hypotheses Null Hypothesis: Ho Alternative Hypothesis: Ha 8 Probability What is probability? Why do we use it in research? What is big enough? What is the probability or the likelihood that the null hypothesis will be rejected? We get p-values by using statistics. These formulas are different depending on what type of study we are running. 9 Probability For example: If we were studying proportions, e.g. 7/100 patients improved with drug 1 where 20/100 patients improved with a placebo. Z-test. 10 Probability What if we had 4 different populations we were interested in: men, women, old, young. Chi Square. 11 Probability Class Example: Drug Study to improve ADHD. 12