Name: What Bone Cells Need 1. Think about the bone investigation. Explain why bone cells need the nutrient calcium to function properly. Bone cells need the nutrient calcium so they stay strong and rigid. They will not support the body if they are soft. 2. What do bone cells (and all human body cells) need to function properly besides just nutrients? All bone cells need nutrients, oxygen, and water. Muscle Investigation 1. Colin investigated how many sit ups he could do in 30 seconds. He did five trials. Between each trial, he rested for 30 seconds. His results are below: Trial 1: Trial 2 : Trial 3: Trial 4: Trial 5: 20 sit-ups 17 sit-ups 16 sit-ups 14 sit-ups 9 sit-ups Do you notice a pattern in how many sit-ups Colin can do in each trial? Explain your answer. The pattern is that the number of sit-ups is decreasing. 2. Think about the pattern, and then explain what you think happened to Colin’s muscle cells as he continued to exercise. The muscle cells needed more nutrients, oxygen, and water than they were getting, so he experienced muscle fatigue. The muscle cells didn’t have enough energy to continue working. Comparing Cells Review science notebook pages 42-45 from Lesson 11 to help you answer the following two questions. 1. You sketched and described some cells that were part of an alien from the mythical planet of Zorr. If those cells were part of a human body instead of an alien, what 3 things would those cells (like all human body cells) need to function properly? All human body cells need oxygen, nutrients, and water. 2. Your alien has more than one type of cell in its body. Is this similar to the human body? Why or why not? Give examples of different body cells to explain your answer. The aliens are similar because the human body is made up of many different kinds of cells, such as brain cells, muscle cells, skin cells, and lung cells just like the aliens. Supporting Active Muscle Cells 1. Blood carries what 3 things to muscle cells so they can make energy? The blood carries nutrients, water, and oxygen to the muscles so they can make energy. 2. A woman recorded her heart rate while she did three different things, and wrote down the following information: Activity A: Activity B: Activity C: 75 heartbeats per minute 140 heartbeats per minute 103 heartbeats per minute Based on her results, which activity letter do you think she was sprinting? Activity B Based on her results, which activity letter do you think she was sitting down? Activity A 3. True or False? If false, rewrite the statement to make it true. When you exercise, your heart beats faster. True 4. You checked your pulse for 15 seconds and counted 20 throbs. How fast is your heart beating per minute (heart rate)? 80 beats per minute 5. Which gas enters your body when you inhale? Oxygen enters your body as you inhale. 6. Which gas exits your body when you exhale? Carbon dioxide exits your body when you exhale. 7. What are the main organs of the respiratory system? The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system. 1. True or False? If false, rewrite the statement to make it true. The more active muscles cells are, the less energy they need. The more active muscles cells are, the more nutrients (energy) they need. Humans are multi-cellular organisms. True 2. Write 2-3 sentences that explain the relationship between these 4 words: Cells, tissues, organs, systems. Cells are the building blocks of the human body and combine to form tissues. Tissues are groups of cells working in a unit, and combine to form organs. Organs are made up of several tissues and combine to form systems, which are two or more organs working together to accomplish an essential task. Cells tissue organssystems Working Together Read the paragraph below and then describe in the second column of the table how each body system helped Amanda move her arm. Be sure to write an answer for all six systems. Amanda is playing a softball game with her team. Everyone wants to win the game, and everyone’s body is working hard. Amanda throws a softball as fast as she can to her teammate on third base. She’s a good thrower and she gets the ball there before the other team’s runner can touch the base. Amanda is happy all her systems helped her move her arm so she could throw the ball so fast. This system: Helped Amanda move her arm by doing this: Skeletal Bones support the body and protect organs, and are attached to muscles. Bones move at joints. Muscular Muscles pull on the bones to move them, and gives her power to throw. Nervous Her eyes see the play, and send the message through her to nerves to her brain. Her brain makes a decision, then sends a message to her arm muscles to throw the ball. Circulatory Her heart pumps blood which brings NOW (nutrients, oxygen, and water) to the muscle cells so they can have energy. Respiratory This system carries oxygen to her blood, which carries it to her muscle cells. This system also carries away carbon dioxide. Digestive The digestive system breaks down food, and puts the nutrients and water into the blood, to be taken to the cells for energy.