Midterm exam study guide

Anatomy / Physiology Midterm Exam Study Guide
Chapter 1
Define anatomy, physiology, homeostasis, metabolism, anatomical position
Describe superior, inferior, medial, lateral, anterior, posterior, superficial, deep,
distal, proximal
Organization– atom, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism
Planes – saggital, transverse, frontal/coronal
Cavities – dorsal, ventral, thoracic, abdominopelvic, cranial, spinal
Chapter 2
Explain what the formula C6H12O6 means.
Distinguish between organic and inorganic substances
Describe the roles water and oxygen play in the human body
Define enzyme
Chapter 3
Define selectively permeable, osmosis, filtration, differentiation
Explain how diffusion aids in the exchange of gases within the body
Describe the major events of mitosis
Chapter 4
Distinguish between anabolism and catabolism
Distinguish between aerobic and anaerobic respiration
Chapter 5
Describe the four main types of tissues using general functions and characteristics
Chapter 6
Name and describe the four types of membranes
Name the five structures of the integumentary system and their functions
Describe the layers of the skin
Explain the role of the integumentary system in body temperature regulation
Chapter 7
Axial vs. Appendicular skeleton
What are the five sections of vertebrae?
What is the purpose of the vertebral column?
What is an articulation? What connects bone to bone?
Explain the functions of bone.
Describe epiphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, articular cartilage, medullary cavity
What are osteocytes?
Full skeleton diagram – how many bones are in the adult skeleton?
Bones to know…
cranium, mandible, hyoid, vertebrae sections (C,T,L,S,C), clavicle, scapula,
humerus, radius, ulna, carpals(as a group), metacarpals, phalanges, sternum,
ribs, coxal bone, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals (as a group), metatarsals,
Chapter 8
Explain the structure of a muscle. Muscle, epimysium, fasiculi, perimysium, muscle
fiber, endomysium, myofibril, myofilaments, actin and myosin
Describe the three types of muscle tissue
Explain the functions of skeletal muscle
Distinguish between tendon, ligament, aponeuroses, fascia
Explain the Sliding Filament Theory
Describe the effects of exercise on muscles
Full muscle diagram – how many muscles are in the human body?
Muscles to know…
Biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Pectoralis major
Rectus abdominis
External obliques
Latissimus dorsi
Tibialis anterior