Ch 4.3 Struggling Toward Saratoga MAIN IDEA After a series of setbacks, American forces win at Saratoga and survive. WHY IT MATTERS NOW All types of Americans join the fight for common ideals and freedoms. Summer, 1776 Defeat in New York • 32,000 British troops overrun the city. • 10,000 German Hessian mercenaries. • Ill-trained rebels retreat to Pennsylvania. Christmas, 1776 Battle of Trenton • Washington crosses Delaware River into New Jersey. • Surprised Hessian garrison, wins. • Eight days later wins Battle of Princeton. 1777, Fight for Philadelphia • Gen. William Howe beats Washington at Brandywine, PA. -Takes U.S. capital of Philadelphia. -Continental Congress flees. 1777, Victory at Saratoga • Gen. John Burgoyne leads British and allies south from Canada. • Keeps losing to rebel militia. • Surrounded at Saratoga -surrenders to Gen. Gates. Early French Alliances • Since 1776, been sending weapons. • Recognize American independence and sign treaty, Feb. 1778. • No peace until Britain recognizes U.S. Winter at Valley Forge • Continental Army winter camp (17771778). • 20% died of cold and hunger. Financing the War • Sells bonds to investor and foreign governments • Prints paper money, cause inflation (rising prices). • Smuggling through naval blockade. • Profiteering- sell scarce goods for profit. Civilians at War • Women -manage homes and businesses. -follow troops; wash, cook, mend, and fight. • African-American -escape to cities or frontier. -5,000 serve in Continental Army • Native Americans -Most stay out of conflict.