4.1 Revolution War • Standards • 8.1.3 Analyze how the American Revolution affected other nations, especially France. • 8.1.4 Essential Questions 1. How important were foreign alliances to the American victory in the Revolutionary War? 2. In which ways did the American Revolution influence other nations? 3. How is a democracy different from a republic? Ch 4.3 Struggling Toward Saratoga MAIN IDEA After a series of setbacks, American forces win at Saratoga and survive. WHY IT MATTERS NOW All types of Americans join the fight for common ideals and freedoms. Defeat in New York • 32,000 British troops overrun the city late summer 1776. • 10,000 German mercenaries. -Hessians. • Ill-trained rebels retreat to Pennsylvania. Battle of Trenton • Christmas 1776, Washington crosses Delaware River into New Jersey. • Surprised Hessian garrison, wins. • Eight days later wins Battle of Princeton. Fight for Philadelphia, 1777 • Gen. William Howe beats Washington at Brandywine, PA. -Takes U.S. capital of Philadelphia. -Continental Congress flees. Victory at Saratoga • Gen. John Burgoyne leads British and allies south from Canada. • Keeps losing to rebel militia. • Surrounded at Saratoga -surrenders to Gen. Gates. Early French Alliances • Since 1776, been sending weapons. • Recognize American independence and sign treaty, Feb. 1778. • No peace until Britain recognizes U.S. Winter at Valley Forge • Continental Army winter camp (17771778). • 20% died of cold and hunger. Financing the War • Sells Bonds to investor and foreign Governments • Prints paper money, cause inflation (rising prices). • Smuggle through naval blockade. • Profiteering- sell scarce goods for profit. Civilians at War • Women -manage homes and businesses. -follow troops; wash, cook, mend, and fight. • African-Americans -escape to cities or frontier. -5,000 serve in Continental Army • Native Americans -Most stay out of conflict.