Chapter 5 Review and Discussion Persian Empire under Darius, 521486 B.C.E. Ruling a large empire is a difficult task. How did Darius organize the administration of the realm? How was the Political government organized? divided into twenty provinces What was the role of the Satrap? each ruled by a Persian satrap or governor connected by marriage to the royal court primarily responsible for collecting and forwarding the tribute to the king. How did Darius maintain control of his empire? Persian control - building and patrolling the royal roads Postal system / trade routes combining central organization with local traditions and ordinances. Adapted the use of secret agents (used formerly by Assyrians) Why were the Persians successful rulers? willing to adapt to local circumstances, to learn from those with experience, and to utilize the skills of non-Persians Describe Persian religious beliefs during the height of the Persian Empire. Explain Zoroastrianism – Founder Zoroaster may have lived between (6001800BCE) fostered the belief in one supreme deity encouraged moral and ethical virtues promised salvation Saw the world as a struggle between good and evil Good will prevail used by Persian leaders to portray the king as having a mandate to bring order to a tumultuous world. How did geography and the environment affect Greek development? Environment Lacking fertile river valleys, Greece depended entirely on rainfall for agriculture rocky terrain small mountain ranges lack of navigable rivers made overland travel, trading, and communication very difficult. Environment How did environmental constraints shaped Greek political structures, commerce, and society? Small city-states developed Lack of natural resources and the need for agricultural supplies spurred the growth of maritime commerce. Contact with other peoples brought in new ideas and technologies. Greek Gods People emulated the Gods’ behavior Anthropomorphic Influenced peoples’ actions Gods lived on Mt. Olympus Each God controlled a specific part of the universe. The Parthenon Dedicated to the Goddess Athena Parthenon. Built between 447 BCE and 438 BCE. The Olympic Games (776 BCE) • Held to honor Zeus • Trade and wars stopped during games • Only men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate later included Greek colonies • Individual events rather than team • Women were not allowed Governing the City-States • Between 750 B.C.E and 500 B.C.E, the Greeks evolved different forms of government. Review of Governments 1. monarchy: [‘single ruler'] A government in which a king or queen exercises central power (chosen by birth; hereditary) 2. aristocracy: ['best-rule'] noble landholding families (hereditary distinction) 3. oligarchy: ['few-rule'] small group of business elites like, merchants, farmers and artisans (wealth distinction) New Technique: Phalanx Each city-state had citizen-soldiers • A new method of fighting emerged called “phalanx” • A massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers that moved in unison Sparta • Military Society • Gov: led by two kings and 20 counselors • largest and most sophisticated army in the known world • Forbade: trade, travel and free speech! • Needed army to control slave (helot) population • Outnumbered 20 to 1 • Control lasted over 250 years. Spartan Military Life Army governed life What did it mean for a man? Trained in military -Started at age 7 -Marry at 20 but live in barracks -Retire at 60 53 years of service! •Males can vote at 30 Reading: Sparta, The training of Youth Athens • It is the place where democracy was born. Pericles • Pericles was crucial to the expansion of democracy • Allowed the freedom of speech and thought Pericles’ Funeral Oration “Our constitution is called a democracy because power is in the hands not of a minority but of the whole people. We alone regard a man who takes no interest in public affairs not as harmless, but as a useless character.” --Pericles’ 431 B.C. Athenian Democracy • Only those with both parents born in Athens could have citizenship • Athens had a direct democracy: all male citizens had the right to attend the Assembly and a vote. • met 40 times a year • No elections, leaders chosen by drawing lots • Member of 500 Was Greek democracy “democratic”? Greek democracy was not truly “democratic” by modern American standards. Why? because a sizable portion of the population (women, slaves 1/3 of the population, and immigrants) were not citizens Only 10 to 15 percent of the population Women: Athens VS Sparta Athens Seldom allowed in public No formal education Could not own property Primarily responsible for house and domestic duties No political power Marriage Purpose was to create male offspring Sparta Taught to read and write Women were trained in athletic events Produce strong healthy babies (prefer males) Taught loyalty to the state Had Property Rights No political power The Persian Wars: Overview The threat of the powerful Persian empire united the Greek city-states. Around 500B.C. Greeks were attacked by the Persians Greeks joined together to fight Persians 3 Persian Wars (499-479 BCE) The Impact of the Persian Wars 1. Athens emerged as the most powerful citystate. 2. Athens used the Delian League (alliance of 150 city states) to create an Athenian empire. 3. With Pericles as its leader, Athens enters into its Golden Age! The Peloponnesian War: The Alliance System Fails! The Peloponnesian War: CAUSES Many Greeks outside of Athens resented Athenian domination. Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League Sparta and Athens rivaling for supremacy… The Peloponnesian War • 27 year war ensues • Pericles brings all the people into the city • He depends on the navy, high walls and food supplies to string out the war A Mysterious Plague Hits Athens! • Plague destroys 1/3 of Athenian population • Plague sweeps through a total of 3 times during the war • Generals are dead, Pericles is dead, no leadership The Peloponnesian War: Effects 1. Persia gained control of many city-states 2. Defeated democracy in Greece 3. Sparta would eventually fall to Persia 4. Athen’s cultural influence continues Great Philosophers of Greece What is philosophy? The word “philosophy” comes from the Greeks. “Philosophy” by Greek definition means “love of wisdom.” The Greeks believed that nature followed general rules called “natural laws,” which could be discovered by reason. The Three Great Greek Thinkers Who are they? Socrates • No written records •His student Plato wrote about him •He believed the goal of education was to improve peoples’ lives “…the unexamined life is not worth living.” -Socrates Socrates “Socratic Method” question & answer approach; helped people recognize they didn’t have all the answers! “Know thy self”… Self-examination leads to correct behavior and ethical living. Socrates on Trial----WHY? •Seen by many to not believe in the gods •Feared that he was corrupting the minds of the youth! •He is found guilty and put to death! A scapegoat… Great Philosophers of Greece “The Death of Socrates” Painted in France in 1787 • How does it depict this famous man? -Noble, dignified & forceful. -He is ready to meet his death but not before he speaks his mind! Plato • Author of The Republic • No family or personal property; common good government • Yet the government should regulate every aspect of its citizens lives! Started a school called The Academy Plato • Rulers should be unselfish. • Believed that only the most intelligent should participate in gov’t. • Believed in finding “truth” through reason! Aristotle Did not agree with his teacher… • Knowledge should be gained from all the senses. • Major influence in Western European culture • Believed women were just “infertile men…” and inadequate Aristotle Wrote Politics Supports family & personal property A government that features three social classes Favored a single, strong ruler Able leaders that have a respect for the law Responsibilities of citizens to their government The Writing of History Scientific Medicine Begins! The Greeks applied reason, observation, and logic to the study of history and medicine. •Herodotus is called the “Father of History.” • Herodotus stressed the importance of research. • Medicine •Hippocrates & the Hippocratic Oath – all patients must be treated regardless of class Hippocratic Oath Alexander the Great (336-323) B.C.E. Accomplishments Conquers Egypt, Mediterranean Sea region, Persia, and far as Pakistan Declared pharaoh in Egypt Alexander had encouraged blending by marrying a Persian woman and adopting Persian customs. Builds capital of Alexandria and many other “Alexandria's”! See map The Empire of Alexander the Great The Legacy of Alexander 327 B.C.E. attempts to conquer India Soldiers rebel from 11 years of exhaustion Alexander dies in Babylon of malaria after 13 years as king Empire broken up into 3 Macedonian dynasties Alexander’s most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Explain what is meant by the Hellenistic Age. The Hellenistic Age was a period that followed the conquests of Alexander During the Hellenistic Age, Greek culture acted as the dominant influence lasting from about 323 to 30 B.C.E. northeastern Africa and western Asia The Hellenistic Age boasted new forms of science, art, and scholarship. The city of Alexandria in Egypt epitomized the Hellenistic Age through its art and architecture, its great library, and its cosmopolitan culture. Long after Greeks ceased to exert any direct political control on those areas, their culture remained a powerful influence.