World War I “The Great War” U.S. History & Government Causes of WWI • Nationalism – Strong pride/belief in your country • Imperialism – Quest for colonial empires • Militarism – Glorification of military strength – Arms race • Alliances – Promise to aid each other – Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Bulgaria – Triple Entente/Allied Powers: France, Russia, Great Britain The Beginnings in Europe • Balkan feuds • June 28, 1914 Austrian Archduke assassinated • Ultimatum by AustriaHungary • Alliances bring war The European War • Stalemate on the Western Front – Trenches • Networks of supply & command trenches – Machine Gun – Poison Gas – (Tanks & Airplanes) • North Atlantic Deadlock – Submarines – Mines • Surrender on the Eastern Front Trench Warfare – Russia nearly “unarmed” – Revolution = Russian surrender – Germans sense victory Why did the US Enter WWI? Document A • Read Woodrow Wilson’s Speech #1 • Discuss with your table partner & record your answer: 1. Did Wilson think the US should enter WWI? Why or why not? Use evidence from the document to support your answer. US Neutrality in WWI? • Not our war • But tied to Europe anyway… • Problems with neutrality – Trade – Freedom of the Seas • Lusitania, 1915 • Arabic & Sussex Pledges • US Prepares…for war or peace? – Army & Naval buildup – Negotiations… Document B • Read Woodrow Wilson’s Speech #2 • Discuss with your table partner & record your answers. Be sure to provide evidence to support your answers: 2. By 1917, did Wilson think the US should enter WWI? Why or why not? 3. What did Wilson accuse Germany of doing? 4. Do you think this is a good reason to go to war? Explain. 5. Re-read the last two paragraphs of the 1917 speech. Why do you think Wilson added these paragraphs? How do you think these words made Americans feel? • US Declaration of War… – Make the world safe for democracy – For the rights & liberties of small nations – A war to end all wars – Strengthen GB’s navy (a la Monroe Doctrine ) • Turning the Tide – AEF arrives summer 1917 (American Expeditionary Force) – “Over There” The US Goes to War • Why else did the US go to war? – Zimmerman Note – Return to Unrestricted Submarine warfare – GB broke – Chaos in Russia • Discuss with your table partner: 6. What do you think are the TWO biggest reasons why the US entered the war? 7. Based on the reasons in Wilson’s 1917 speech and those given above, do you think the US had good reasons for entering the war? Explain. Pulling the US into War A Little Bit about Historian Howard Zinn • Howard Zinn was a historian and activist who was best known for his 1980 book, A People’s History of the United States. His book tells American history from the perspective of minorities, women and poor people. He was very critical of the United States government. Document C • Read the excerpt from Howard Zinn • Discuss with your table partner 8. Why did Zinn claim that Wilson made a “flimsy argument?” 9. What did Zinn suggest were the real reasons the US entered the war? 10. What evidence did Zinn provide to support his claims that the US was motivated by other reasons (besides German attacks of US ships)? 11. Do you find Zinn’s argument convincing? Why or why not? The Home Front… • Wilson’s Preparedness Program – “Mobilization of men, money, machines & minds” • Men – Selective Service Act, 1917 • Money – Liberty Bonds & Victory Loans • Machines – Ships, Guns, Jeeps… • Minds – Opposition to the war – Committee on Public Information Woodrow Wilson Over There • In 1917, George M. Cohen, wrote the song, Over There. The 1942 movie Yankee Doodle Dandy used the song to help tell its story. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i5oWH6JWBJY – 12. How is the song useful as evidence of American life and attitudes during WWI? Explain. – 13. How is this movie clip useful as evidence of American life and attitudes during WWII? Explain. – 14. Which is more useful, the song for WWI or the video clip for WWII? Explain Fighting the War at Home • Conversion to Full Wartime Economy – War Industries Board – Council of Defense • Food Administration • Fuel Administration – The Labor Force • National War Labor Board • Attack on Civil Liberties WWI US Propaganda Poster • Espionage Act, 1917 • Trading with the Enemies Act, 1917 • Sedition Act, 1918 Woodrow Wilson’s 14 Points • Wilson’s Plan for World Peace • 9 Points – Self Determination – The right of people to govern themselves – Settles territorial disputes • 4 Points – Causes of War – No more secret diplomacy – No more arms race – No more violation of freedom of the seas – No more trade barriers • 1 Point – League of Nations – Set up an international body designed to prevent offensive wars Death and Destruction: Before WWI Death and Destruction After Before After Before After WWI Casualties The Surrender • German generals decide to surrender – Can’t win with US entry into the war – Hope the treaty will be based on the 14 Points – Kaiser abdicates • The cease fire goes into place at 11 AM on 11/11/1918 (Armistice Day) – Peace Conference set for January 1919 in Paris Paris Peace Conference • Wilson leads US delegation – Wants to “end all wars” • Big Three (from L to R) – David Lloyd George – Great Britain • Couldn’t be trusted – Georges Clemenceau – France • Wanted revenge – Vittorio Orlando – Italy • Demanded new ports – + Woodrow Wilson – U.S. – Other nations were there too • Six months of debate until decision reached The “Big Four” Treaty of Versailles “Harsh and Humiliating” Terms • Europeans wanted as much as possible from the treaty • Treaty provisions – – – – – – – – Each victor received land as promised in secret treaties Germany disarmed & colonies parceled out Meant to weaken communist Russia New Countries formed Rejected claims for independence outside of Europe Germany forced to admit full responsibility for the War Germany charged billions of dollars in reparations League of Nations established… League of Nations • League covenant embedded in the Treaty – Article X • Purpose – To resolve disputes peacefully – To “respect and preserve” all other member nations – Established a waiting/cooling off period – Economic pressure to be used – Use of force only if necessary 1914: Before the Great War Great Empires: • Russia • AustriaHungary • Ottoman Empire (Turkey) After the Great War: by 1924 New Countries: • Finland • Estonia • Latvia • Lithuania • Poland • Czechoslovakia • Yugoslavia • Syria • Trans-Jordan • Iraq Fight Over the Treaty • Wilson triumphantly returns to US • Problem: Senate has to approve treaty • US fearful of treaty “alliances” – The U.S. would be forced to go to war in defense of any League member • No compromise: Wilson vs. Congress • League – set up in Geneva, Switzerland without the U.S. Reflection Questions • 15. What do you think was the biggest reason why Europe erupted into war? • 16. What provisions would you have put in the treaty of Versailles? What would you have excluded? • 17. What are two things that were new, interesting, or you know that you will (or should) remember a month from now?