Greece and Geography Warm-up Please write all of the following definitions and create a sentence for each in your notebooks in the first 10 minutes of class. If you have any questions , please raise your hand. Definition: 1. settlement- a small community or village 2. shelter- a place that provides protection from weather, such as a house 3. Colonist- a person who lives in a colony 4. merchant- a person who makes money by selling goods Introduction to Greece • Intro • Geography Geography and the Settlement of Greece • Ancient Greece flourished between 750 and 338 B.C.E • Ancient Greek art, ideas and writings continue to influence us today • Greece is a small country in southern Europe • It is shaped like a little hand Activity Please complete on the left side of your notebook • Use a world map in the back of your • • textbook to locate Greece. Sketch the shape of Greece (like a hand) on on your notebook page While you listen and take notes today, you must record 10 things you learned inside the outline of Greece Greece Geography Continued • The mainland of Greece is a peninsula, meaning • • • • it is surrounded by water on 3 sides Greece also includes many islands throughout the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas The mainland of Greece is steep and rocky The ancient Greeks lived on small farms or in small villages scattered throughout the country The farms and villages were isolated from one another because of the mountains Greece Isolated Communities and the Difficulties of Travel • In ancient Greece, people were isolated from one • • • • • • another because of the mountains It was difficult to travel over the mountains, so there was little communication between settlements Travel by land was especially difficult People traveled by foot or carts pulled by oxen or mules Roads were unpaved Sharp rocks would break wooden wheels and wagons would get stuck in the mud Only wealthy people could afford to ride horses Isolation Problems Continued • Travelers could stop by inns along main roads, but many • • • • inns provided only shelter People had to bring food, water and another supplies to last throughout their journeys Slaves or pack animals would carry bedding and other necessities With all of these necessities, people would have to travel in groups and it would take long periods of time There was always the danger of being attacked by robbers Travel made Easier • Traveling by boat was easier, but it was still • • • • uncomfortable and could be dangerous Travelers could be attacked by pirates The greatest danger was the sea itself Sudden storms could drive ships off course, sometimes sending them into the rocky shoreline Even in open waters, ships could sink Travel by Sea • The Greeks treated the sea with great respect • Whenever possible, sailors kept their boats close to shore • They sailed only during daylight hours and stopped each night to anchor • A wise captain always made a sacrifice to the sea god Poseidon before sailing Farming in Ancient Greece • Most people in Ancient Greece survived by farming • Farming was not easy in the mountainous land • Even in the plains and valleys, the land was rocky and water was scarce • No major rivers are located in Greece and it usually only rains in the winter Farming continued • Some farmers built large steps from the earth so • • • they would have more flat land for farming Some farmers grew wheat and barley but most grew crops that needed less land Crops that need less land are grapes and olives Greeks made olive oil from the olives, which was used for cooking and lighting lamps Farming Continued • Ancient Greek farmers grew food for their own families • They had small vegetable gardens • They also planted fruit and nut trees • Some Greek farmers kept bees to make honey • Honey was the best known sweetner in the ancient world Farming continued • Greek farmers also raised animals • Instead of cattle, which need lots of flat land to • • • graze, they raised sheep and goats Sheep were used for their wool to make clothes, while goats provided milk and cheese Farmers kept a few oxen, donkeys and mules for plowing and transportation Some Greek families also kept chickens and pigs Farming and Fighting • The shortage of good farmland sometimes led to wars between Greek settlements • Some settlements were forced to look beyond the mainland to find new sources of goods and food Starting Colonies • As populations in Greece grew some settlements • • • • did not have enough food to feed all their people One solution to this problem was to start a new colony Colonies are settlements in distant places Many Greek communities sent people over the sea to see if they could find food or places to grow food These people were called colonists Colonists • Colonists had many preparations to make before starting their journey • Often they began by consulting the Greek gods • An oracle was a holy person whom they believed could communicate with the gods Partner Activity Part 1 Pretend you have been chosen by your community to become a colonist. Write one paragraph describing what type of land you hope to find (what resources will it have, what will it look like?). Write a second paragraph praising the Greek gods and asking them if you will be successful. Partner Activity Part 2 Pretend you are a Greek oracle who will need to respond to the colonist. Write one paragraph telling him/her what land they will find and if they will be successful. Colonists Preparations Continued • The colonists also gathered food and supplies • They made sure to take the burning flame from their town’s sacred fire so they could start a sacred fire in the new land Starting a Colony • Starting a colony was hard work • They first had to survive a long sea voyage • After the sea voyage they had to locate a place safe • • • enough to start a colony They looked for places that had natural harbors (close to water) and good farmland They also looked for a place that was not populated with people who may try and get rid of them Finally they had to work hard to establish the farming and community Making Successful Colonies • The Greeks established colonies over a period of • • • 300 years, from 1000 to 650 B.C.E The first group of colonies was called Ionia in present day Turkey Later they started colonies in Spain, France, Italy, Africa and the coast of the Black Sea The colonies helped spread Greek culture Success of Colonies Continued • Some of the colonies became wealthy through farming and trade • Colonists shared the rights and freedoms of the people in the mainland of Greece • Including the right to participate in the Greek athletic games. Trading for Needed Goods • Many settlements on the mainland traded to get the goods they needed • Some settlements had enough farmland to get what they needed but others needed to trade to survive • Olive oil, pottery and wine from the mainland were traded with grain, timber and metals from the colonies How Trading Worked • Most goods traveled on ships owned by • • • • merchants Merchant ships were built of wood, with large rectangular cloth sails Merchants built their ships for places to store goods rather than for speed The ships traveled about 3 to 5 miles per hour A one way trip to mainland would take about 2 months Navigating the Ships • • • • • • Navigating the ships was difficult The Greeks had no compasses or charts They had only the stars to guide them The stars would tell sailors where they were, but they could not tell them about potential dangers No lighthouses warned them of coastline dangers Despite the dangers trade flourished in Greece and the colonies Activity Create a merchant trade ships 1.Use the description from your notes to draw the ship and make sure to include some of the goods that would have been carried. 2.Write one paragraph describing where your ship will be traveling, what goods you will be trading and why the colony is trading these goods.