Greece and Geography Warm-up

Greece and Geography
Please write all of the following definitions
and create a sentence for each in your
notebooks in the first 10 minutes of class. If
you have any questions ,
please raise your hand.
1. settlement- a small community or
2. shelter- a place that provides
protection from weather, such as a
3. Colonist- a person who lives in a
4. merchant- a person who makes
money by selling goods
Introduction to Greece
• Intro
• Geography
Geography and the
Settlement of Greece
• Ancient Greece flourished between 750
and 338 B.C.E
• Ancient Greek art, ideas and writings
continue to influence us today
• Greece is a small country in southern
• It is shaped like a little hand
Please complete on the
left side of your notebook
• Use a world map in the back of your
textbook to locate Greece.
Sketch the shape of Greece (like a hand) on
on your notebook page
While you listen and take notes today, you
must record 10 things you learned inside
the outline of Greece
Greece Geography Continued
• The mainland of Greece is a peninsula, meaning
it is surrounded by water on 3 sides
Greece also includes many islands throughout
the Mediterranean and Aegean Seas
The mainland of Greece is steep and rocky
The ancient Greeks lived on small farms or in
small villages scattered throughout the country
The farms and villages were isolated from one
another because of the mountains
Isolated Communities and the
Difficulties of Travel
• In ancient Greece, people were isolated from one
another because of the mountains
It was difficult to travel over the mountains, so there
was little communication between settlements
Travel by land was especially difficult
People traveled by foot or carts pulled by oxen or mules
Roads were unpaved
Sharp rocks would break wooden wheels and wagons
would get stuck in the mud
Only wealthy people could afford to ride horses
Isolation Problems Continued
• Travelers could stop by inns along main roads, but many
inns provided only shelter
People had to bring food, water and another supplies to
last throughout their journeys
Slaves or pack animals would carry bedding and other
With all of these necessities, people would have to travel
in groups and it would take long periods of time
There was always the danger of being attacked by
Travel made Easier
• Traveling by boat was easier, but it was still
uncomfortable and could be dangerous
Travelers could be attacked by pirates
The greatest danger was the sea itself
Sudden storms could drive ships off course,
sometimes sending them into the rocky
Even in open waters, ships could sink
Travel by Sea
• The Greeks treated the sea with great
• Whenever possible, sailors kept their boats
close to shore
• They sailed only during daylight hours and
stopped each night to anchor
• A wise captain always made a sacrifice to
the sea god Poseidon before sailing
Farming in Ancient Greece
• Most people in Ancient Greece survived by
• Farming was not easy in the mountainous
• Even in the plains and valleys, the land
was rocky and water was scarce
• No major rivers are located in Greece and
it usually only rains in the winter
Farming continued
• Some farmers built large steps from the earth so
they would have more flat land for farming
Some farmers grew wheat and barley but most
grew crops that needed less land
Crops that need less land are grapes and olives
Greeks made olive oil from the olives, which was
used for cooking and lighting lamps
Farming Continued
• Ancient Greek farmers grew food for their
own families
• They had small vegetable gardens
• They also planted fruit and nut trees
• Some Greek farmers kept bees to make
• Honey was the best known sweetner in
the ancient world
Farming continued
• Greek farmers also raised animals
• Instead of cattle, which need lots of flat land to
graze, they raised sheep and goats
Sheep were used for their wool to make clothes,
while goats provided milk and cheese
Farmers kept a few oxen, donkeys and mules for
plowing and transportation
Some Greek families also kept chickens and pigs
Farming and Fighting
• The shortage of good farmland sometimes
led to wars between Greek settlements
• Some settlements were forced to look
beyond the mainland to find new sources
of goods and food
Starting Colonies
• As populations in Greece grew some settlements
did not have enough food to feed all their people
One solution to this problem was to start a new
Colonies are settlements in distant places
Many Greek communities sent people over the
sea to see if they could find food or places to
grow food
These people were called colonists
• Colonists had many preparations to make
before starting their journey
• Often they began by consulting the Greek
• An oracle was a holy person whom they
believed could communicate with the gods
Partner Activity
Part 1
Pretend you have been chosen by your
community to become a colonist. Write one
paragraph describing what type of land you
hope to find (what resources will it have,
what will it look like?).
Write a second paragraph praising the
Greek gods and asking them if you will be
Partner Activity
Part 2
Pretend you are a Greek oracle who will
need to respond to the colonist. Write one
paragraph telling him/her what land they
will find and if they will be successful.
Colonists Preparations Continued
• The colonists also gathered food and
• They made sure to take the burning flame
from their town’s sacred fire so they could
start a sacred fire in the new land
Starting a Colony
• Starting a colony was hard work
• They first had to survive a long sea voyage
• After the sea voyage they had to locate a place safe
enough to start a colony
They looked for places that had natural harbors (close to
water) and good farmland
They also looked for a place that was not populated with
people who may try and get rid of them
Finally they had to work hard to establish the farming
and community
Making Successful Colonies
• The Greeks established colonies over a period of
300 years, from 1000 to 650 B.C.E
The first group of colonies was called Ionia in
present day Turkey
Later they started colonies in Spain, France,
Italy, Africa and the coast of the Black Sea
The colonies helped spread Greek culture
Success of Colonies Continued
• Some of the colonies became wealthy
through farming and trade
• Colonists shared the rights and freedoms
of the people in the mainland of Greece
• Including the right to participate in the
Greek athletic games.
Trading for Needed Goods
• Many settlements on the mainland traded
to get the goods they needed
• Some settlements had enough farmland to
get what they needed but others needed
to trade to survive
• Olive oil, pottery and wine from the
mainland were traded with grain, timber
and metals from the colonies
How Trading Worked
• Most goods traveled on ships owned by
Merchant ships were built of wood, with large
rectangular cloth sails
Merchants built their ships for places to store
goods rather than for speed
The ships traveled about 3 to 5 miles per hour
A one way trip to mainland would take about 2
Navigating the Ships
Navigating the ships was difficult
The Greeks had no compasses or charts
They had only the stars to guide them
The stars would tell sailors where they were, but
they could not tell them about potential dangers
No lighthouses warned them of coastline
Despite the dangers trade flourished in Greece
and the colonies
Create a merchant trade ships
1.Use the description from your notes to draw the
ship and make sure to include some of the
goods that would have been carried.
2.Write one paragraph describing where your ship
will be traveling, what goods you will be trading
and why the colony is trading these goods.