Name _____________________________ Chapter 13: Atmosphere and Climate Change Use the Holt Environmental Science book to answer the following questions. 1. Explain how the climates of Seattle and Phoenix are different (p. 351). 2. What is the most important factor in determining climate (p. 351)? 3. Explain why areas near the poles receive less of the sun’s energy than areas near the equator (Figure 2, page 352). 4. Explain how cold air and warm air differ in regard to density and how much water each can hold (p. 353). 5. Name the three wind belts found in each hemisphere (Figure 3, page 353). 6. How is water temperature in the Eastern Pacific Ocean different between El Nino and La Nina (Figure 5, page 356)? 7. Explain why deserts often form on the backside of mountains (Figure 7, page 357). 8. What effect do large volcanic eruptions usually have on climate (p. 357)? 9. What causes seasons (Figure 9, page 358)? 10. Where is the ozone layer located (p. 359)? 11. Why is the ozone layer important to organisms (p. 359)? 12. Name two things that CFC’s have been used for (p. 359). 13. How many ozone molecules can a single atom of chlorine destroy (p. 359)? 14. Over which continent is the ozone hole located (Figure 11, page 360)? 15. Name two damaging effects of UV light to humans (Table 1, page 361). 16. Name two damaging effects of UV light to amphibians (Table 1, page 361). 17. Name two damaging effects of UV light to marine life (Table 1, page 361). 18. By how many millions of metric tons was CFC production decreased in developed countries from 1986 to 1996 (Figure 13, page 362)? 19. For how long do CFC molecules remain active in the stratosphere (p. 362)? 20. Explain how the Earth is similar to a greenhouse (p. 363). 21. Explain what greenhouse gases do (Figure 14, page 363). 22. What two greenhouse gases account for most of the absorption of heat (p. 363)? 23. Explain why Charles Keeling reasoned that carbon dioxide measurements taken in Mauna Loa, Hawaii, would represent average carbon dioxide levels for the entire Earth (p. 364). 24. Explain why carbon dioxide levels naturally decrease in the summer (p. 364). 25. What general trend is observed for carbon dioxide concentrations since the 1950’s (Figure 15, page 364)? 26. What was the approximate concentration (in parts per million) of carbon dioxide in 2005 (Figure 15, page 364)? 27. What are the major sources of carbon dioxide (Table 2, page 365)? 28. What are the major sources of CFCs (Table 2, page 365)? 29. What are the major sources of methane (Table 2, page 365)? 30. How much higher was the global surface temperature in 1995 compared to the 20th century average global surface temperature (Figure 16, page 365)? 31. Many scientists have hypothesized that the global warming trend is related to an increase in what (p. 365)? 32. Name at least four consequences of a warmer Earth (pages 367 and 368). 33. What does IPCC stand for (p. 368)? 34. Name at least two findings that the IPCC reported in 2001 (p. 368). 35. Explain how reforestation projects may help in the fight against global warming (Figure 21, page 369). 36. By the year 2035 what percentage will developing and developed countries be contributing to total world emissions of carbon dioxide (Figure 22, page 369)?