Chapter 2 Section 2

Chapter 2 Section 2
Kingdoms, City-States, and
East African Trading Civilizations
• Grew strong from trade
• Developed on or near coastlines
• Aksum was a major trading kingdom
on the east coast by C 200 AD
People Becoming
Aksum is located in
East Africa
Cities of Trade
• Aksum declined,
but new trading
cities arose.
• Traded with India
and China
• Used prevailing
winds to sail
Cotton & Silk
Were Traded
Traders Brought Change
• The religion of Islam
was introduced
• A new language
called Swahili
developed in the area
• Swahili is a Bantu
language which
includes some Arab
African Languages
Rise of City-States
• Trading cities grew
into powerful citystates
• A city-state has its
own traditions,
government and laws
• A city-state controlled
much of the
surrounding land
Powerful City-States
Great Zimbabwe
Fort Jesus
• A famous East African
city-state around the
• Grew rich from trade
and taxes
• Like other East
African city-states it
was conquered by
Southern & East African Trade Ties
• Great Zimbabwe lay
to the south & west of
the East African citystates
• It was connected to
the trade routes by
the Indian Ocean
• Only ruins remain
North African Trading Ties
• Long Mediterranean
coastline attracted
• Around 1000 BC
Phoenicians began
searching for ports on
North Africa
The Rise of Carthage
• Around 800 BC the
established the city of
• Grew rich from trade
in textiles, metals,
slaves and food
The Fall of Carthage
• Wealthiest city in the
world at this time
• Controlled
Mediterranean from
the late 500’s BC
through the 200’s BC
• In 146 BC Carthage
fell to Rome
Roman Influences
• North Africa fell under
the influence of the
Roman Empire
• Christianity spread
and Roman roads
were built
• ports flourished
Islamic Influences
• When Rome fell
in 476 AD, North
Africa fell under
Arab control
• Many North
Africans became
Muslims Praying
West African Kingdoms
• West African
kingdoms grew rich
on trade in salt and
• West Africans had
gold which they
traded to North
Africans for salt.
• Ghana, Mali &
Songhai grew rich
from trade
Located between the Senegal and
Niger rivers. Was able to control trade
across West Africa.
Ghana’s Kings
• Ghana’s kings grew
rich from the taxes
they charged on the
salt, gold, and other
goods that flowed
through their lands.
• In the mid 1200’s the kingdom of
Mali arose
• Ghana lost control of its trade routes
to Mali
• In Mali the king was called “Mansa”
which means “Emperor”
Mansa Musa
• Gained the throne
about 1312
• Rules for 20 years
and brought peace
and order to the
Mansa Musa & the Spread of Islam
• Mansa Musa and
many of his subjects
were Muslim
• He based his laws on
the teachings of Islam
• In 1324 made a
pilgrimage to Mecca
Mansa Musa’s Pilgrimage
• He took 60,000 people with him
• 80 camels carried 300 pounds of
• Gold was given away as gifts
along the way
• Mali’s reputation spread
The Kaaba
( black stone in
the corner)
• Mansa Musa dies in 1332
• The Songhai empire became
West Africa’s most powerful
• Wealthiest Songhai trading city
was Tombouctou
Tombouctou, on
the Niger river,
was considered
a great Muslim
learning center.
Forest Kingdoms
Found in the forested region of West Africa
Benin arose in the late 1200’s
Traded in ivory, palm oil, and pepper
They were masters at sculpting and
carving in ivory, bronze, brass and wood.
Forested Kingdoms
Sculptures and
carvings from
Location is Everything!
• Located on the coast
• Benin traded with other African
kingdoms and with Europeans
arriving by sea
• In the 1500’s Europeans began
trading guns for slaves
The Middle Passage
(Slaves crammed on
ships for transport to the
new world)
Slaves were often
beaten if they tried
to run away!