DAY 8 – Answers Other Useful Substances from Crude Oil KEY WORDS Cracking Catalyst Alkenes Unsaturated Alcohol Fermentation Polymer Polymerisation Monomer Biodegradeable SMART Question 1 Answer: 2 What type of reaction is cracking? Thermal decomposition What causes the molecules to split apart? Answer: Heat and a catalyst 3 What are alkenes? Answer: Unsaturated hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons with carbon=carbon double bonds (C=C) 4 Answer: How can you test for unsaturation? Add (orange brown) bromine water and it decolourises (goes clear) if C=C double bonds are present 5 What are monomers and what must they all contain? Answer: Small molecules that join together to make a polymer They must all contain a C=C double bond 6 Answer: How do monomers join to make polymers? One of the double bonds breaks to produce two ‘reactive ends’ that join with other similar ones 7 Answer: 8 Answer: 9 Answer: 10 Answer: What is the chemical name of the polymer formed from ethene? Polyethene Give 2 examples of polymers used in medicine or dentistry Dissolving stitches, easy peel plasters, teeth braces, fillings, toothbrushes What does biodegradable mean? Can be broken down by microbes and plants in the environment List 4 ways of disposing of plastics, from least to most environmentally friendly Burning Landfill Recycling Reusing DAY 9 Plant Oils and their Uses KEY WORDS Oils Unsaturated Bromine water Hydrogenation Nickel catalyst Saturated Emulsion Emulsifier Hydrophilic Hydrophobic Question 1 What 2 methods are used to extract vegetable oils Answer: 2 Why are vegetable oils important as foods and fuels? Answer: 3 Give 3 ways food cooked in oil differs from food cooked in water? Answer: 4 What is meant by an unsaturated oil Answer: 5 What can you use to test an oil for unsaturation? Answer: 6 What type of chemical reaction is hydrogenation? Answer: 7 Why are oils hydrogenated? Answer: 8 How are emulsions made? Answer: 9 How do emulsifiers work? Answer: 10 Answer: How are emulsions different from the liquids it is made from?