Chapter 6 Quiz Learning Don’t forget to write your answers on a separate piece of paper to grade when you’re done! 1. Once Pavlov’s dogs learned to salivate to the sound of a tuning fork, the tuning fork was a(n) a) unconditioned stimulus b) neutral stimulus c) conditioned stimulus d) unconditioned response 2. Shaping is a) a pattern of responses that must be made before classical conditioning is completed b) rewarding behaviors that get closer and closer to the desired goal behavior c) completing a set of behaviors in a succession before a reward is given d) giving you chocolate pudding to increase the likelihood you will eat more carrots 3. John loves to fish. He puts his line in the water and leaves it there until he feels a tug. On what reinforcement schedule is he rewarded? a) fixed ratio b) fixed interval c) variable ratio d) variable interval 4. Chimpanzees given tokens for performing tricks were able to put the tokens in vending machines to get grapes. The tokens acted as a) primary reinforcers b) classical conditioning c) secondary reinforcers d) unconditioned reinforcers 5. Try as you might, you are unable to teach your dog to do a somersault. He will roll around on the ground, but he refuses to execute the gymnastic move you desire because of a) preparedness b) instinctive drift c) chaining d) shaping 6. Watson and Rayner’s classical conditioning of “Little Albert” was helpful in explaining that a) some conditioned stimuli do not generalize b) human emotions such as fear are subject to classical conditioning c) drug dependency is subject to classical as well as operant conditioning d) small children are not as easily conditioned as older children 7. Jamel got very sick after eating some mushrooms on a pizza at his friend’s house. He didn’t know that he had a stomach virus at the time, blamed his illness on the mushrooms, and refused to eat them again. Which of the following is the unconditioned stimulus for his taste aversion to mushrooms? a) pizza b) stomach virus c) mushrooms d) headache 8. If a previous experience has given your pet the expectancy that nothing it does will prevent an aversive stimulus from occurring, it will likely a) be motivated to seek comfort from you b) experience learned helplessness c) model the behavior of other pets in hopes of avoiding it d) seek out challenges like this in the future to disprove the expectation 9. While readying to take a free-throw shot, you suddenly arrive at the answer to a chemistry problem you’d been working on several hours before. This is an example of: a) insight b) backward conditioning c) latent learning d) discrimination 10. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement? a) Buying a child a video game after she throws a tantrum. b) Going inside to escape a thunderstorm. c) Assigning a student detention for fighting. d) Getting a cavity filled at the dentist to halt a toothache. 11. The first step in a behavior modification program is to a) gather baseline data b) specify the antecedent c) specify the target behavior d) design a program 12. In classical conditioning, the stimulus that is originally neutral in regard to the response to be learned is the a) unconditioned stimulus b) unconditioned response c) conditioned stimulus d) conditioned response 13. Typically, most people would a) enjoy being negatively reinforced or punished b) dislike being negatively reinforced or punished c) enjoy being negatively reinforced and dislike being punished d) enjoy being punished and dislike being negatively reinforced 14. Classical conditioning could account for how a child learns to a) sing a song b) tie shoe laces c) print letters d) fear the dark 15. The initial stage of learning a response is called a) extinction b) contiguity c) acquisition d) conditioning Chapter 6 Answer Key 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. B 9. A 10. A 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. C C C D C Essay Question Possibilities!! One of the following essay questions will appear on your test, be familiar with all of them!! Essay Question # 1 Explain how a specific phobia could be acquired through classical conditioning, being sure to identify the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in your example. Also, using classical conditioning, indicate how the phobia could be eliminated. Essay Question # 2 Provide specific, everyday examples (for instance, from child-rearing) of the following operant-conditioning phenomena: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment. Essay Question # 3 Compare the acquisition procedures in classical and operant conditioning. What is the essential differences between the two types of conditioning? Essay Question # 4 Briefly describe observational learning, and explain how it relates to classical and operant conditioning. Essay Question # 5 Design a self-modification program to improve your study habits. Good Luck! Make sure to double check all of your answers and study them for the upcoming exam. Remember, AT LEAST FIVE of the questions from this quiz will make some sort of appearance on the chapter test along with one of the essay questions. Take advantage of this study guide and good luck on your test!