WWII TERMS DIRECTIONS: USE THE BROWN BOOK TO DEFINE THE FOLLOWING TERMS. 1. Collective Security 9. War Bonds p. 234 p.228 10. Rationing p. 234 2. Sudetenland p.228 11. Victory Gardens p.234 3. Appeasement p.228 12. Office of War 4. Blitzkrieg p.229 Information p.235 5. Neutrality Acts p.229 13. Tuskegee Airmen p.236 6. Flying Tigers p.230 14. Executive Order 9066 p. 7. Winston Churchill p.230 236 8. Attack on Pearl Harbor 15. Korematsu v. U.S. p.237 p. 232 WHEN YOU ARE DONE, BEGIN THE WWII DICTATOR AND TIMELINE WORKSHEET CH 12: AMERICA IN WWII 1941-1945 ORIGINS OF WORLD WAR II 4 main reasons for the beginning of World War II: 1. WWI (Treaty of Versailles) 2. Rise of the Dictators 3. Failure of the League of Nations without U.S. 4. Appeasement Fails 1. WWI & TREATY OF VERSAILLES • Countries who lost WWI • Citizens had a very emotional response • felt scared and weak after WWI • Easily taken advantage of by their governments • Veterans of WWI in Europe and Asia • Saw war firsthand, became hardened • Violence becomes regular part of politics • Sets the table for World War II • Axis Powers are created: • Germany • Italy • Japan Main countries involved 2. RISE OF DICTATORSHIPS 1. Soviet Union • First Communist state • Joseph Stalin • Communist • Brutal totalitarian 3. Japan • Insulted and rejected for their part in WW1 • Hediki Tojo • Imperialist 1. Germany • Took blame for WWI • military decreased • Depression • Adolf Hitler • Nazi • Aggressive leader, wanted to dominate Europe 4. Italy • Received nothing from the Treaty of Versailles. • Benito Mussolini • Fascist 3. FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS • League of Nations • Group of allied nations • Purpose: Prevent future wars • Too weak to stop dictators • USA refused to join 4. APPEASEMENT FAILS • Hitler’s goal=expand Germany • Took over Austria in 1938 • Wanted the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) • Britain and France said no but backed down when Hitler threatened with war. • Munich Conference • Britain and France gave Hitler land (part of Czechoslovakia) hoping for peace • Appeasement • Giving in to the enemy • Failed… GERMANY & SOVIET UNION • Hitler wanted more land! • Entered a NonAggression Pact with the Soviet Union • Hitler and Stalin secretly agree to invade and divide Poland together • Agreed to be allies • 1939 • WWII starts in Europe • Germany and the Soviet Union take Poland GERMANY BREAKS THE NON-AGGRESSION PACT • 1941: Germany invades Soviet Union • Hitler’s biggest mistake. AMERICA’S NEUTRALITY • USA wanted to avoid getting involved in the war • FDR was too concerned with ending the Great Depression • Laws passed to keep us out of war JAPAN • Country with many people and few resources • Eventually they look to other countries for more resources • Begin invading Asian countries • In response the USA cuts off trade with Japan • Japan plans a surprise attack on US. ATTACK ON PEARL HARBOR • December 7. 1941 • Pearl Harbor, Hawaii • 2 waves of Japanese airplanes attacked the US Pacific fleet • 18 Ships sank or severely damaged • 260 airplanes damaged/destroyed • 6,000 Americans injured or killed Petty Officer Doris Miller Hero of Pearl Harbor Highly awarded AMERICA DECLARES WAR • December 8, 1941 (the day after the attack) • “A day that will live in infamy” -FDR • U.S. declares war on Japan • Axis Powers: • Germany • Italy • Japan • Allied Powers: • U.S.A • Great Britain • France • USSR (Soviet Union) THE HOME FRONT • Many people volunteered to help the war effort. • Citizens helped pay for the war by purchasing war bonds. • The government used ration books to ration food and goods to save some for soldiers. • Victory Gardens planted by citizens to provide themselves with vegetables and fruits. WOMEN IN WWII • While the men went to war women worked in the factories • Rosie the Riveter represented these working women • Worked as volunteers and nurses in the armed services • Started making money ETHNIC MINORITIES • African-Americans • segregated units • Tuskegee Airmen • fly escort planes for the bombers • Vernon Baker • receives Medal of Honor • Doris Miller • Native Americans • enlisted in higher proportion than other groups • Navajo Code Talkers • Used their Native language to communicate so enemies couldn’t understand • Mexican Americans fought in all battles OFFICE OF WAR INFORMATION Office of War Information • Controlled American propaganda about the war. • Posters, newsreels and radio broadcasts designed to support American patriotism and make people hate the Axis powers. BELL RINGER Thinking back…to chapter 4 Match each right/freedom to the correct Amendment: 1. 2. 3. 4. Right to bear arms Freedom of Religion Right to a jury Arrests and searches 5. Freedom of petition 6. Rights of people accused of crimes A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. 1st Amendment 2nd Amendment 3rd Amendment 4th Amendment 5th Amendment 6th Amendment 7th Amendment 8th Amendment 9th Amendment 10th Amendment WWII • America and the Allies fought both in Europe and in the Pacific WAR IN EUROPE Axis Power in 1942 • USA starts with German troops • Allied forces take Northern Africa first • Then Cross the Mediterranean Sea and take Sicily then Italy. • Soviet Union pushes through Poland from the East • D-Day Invasion on the Normandy coast put Allies in position to attack the Axis from the west. D-DAY INVASION TWO FRONT WAR • Two Front War • Allies push Germans from the West • Soviet Union pushes Germans from the East • Allied leaders continue to push German army to the north WAR IN EUROPE • Battle of the Bulge • Final major battle of the war • on German border with France and Belgium • December, 1944 • May 1945 • Germans surrender • V-E Day • Victory in Europe • Hitler commits suicide HOLOCAUST • After the war we discover evidence of the Holocaust. • Hitler’s “solution” to the Jewish “problem” • Hitler blamed Jews for Germany’s problems • Attempted genocide of Jews • Effort to murder an entire people or nationality • Placed in concentration camps, forced to do hard labor, experimented on, etc. • Hitler was responsible for the deaths of • • • • • 6 million Jews 700 thousand Gypsies 100,000 Homosexuals 100,000 of African and Hispanic dissent Also, political prisoners and the mentally-disabled HOLOCAUST https://www. youtube.co m/watch?v= JctyAwH1d2 o HOLOCAUST • Watch the following clip then finish the prompt: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JctyAwH1d2o • Write the following prompt and complete the statement: • If I were an Allied soldier who discovered a concentration camp I would_______________ because___________________. • Your response can be more than one word. BELL RINGER • WWII TEST WEDNESDAY (ADay)/THURSDAY (BDay) • Watch CNN Student News • Answer or complete one of the following questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. Why is Iowa important the presidential election? What is a negative aspect about the Iowa Caucuses? How does music affect your brain? I found the story about _______ interesting because _____________. NUREMBERG TRIALS • The end of the war revealed the full extent of Nazi terrorism. • Surviving Nazi leaders were put on trial • Many were hanged or imprisoned. • The trials demonstrated that individuals are responsible for their actions, even in times of war. NUREMBERG TRIALS DIVISION OF GERMANY • After the war, Germany is divided into four zones • Each zone is occupied by Axis powers • U.S., Britain, France, Soviet Union • They worked to “denazify” Germany JAPANESE AMERICANS • After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans feared Japanese Americans • The government forced many Japanese Americans to live in Internment Camps • Executive Order 9066 • Korematsu v. U.S. was a court case that attempted to declare the camps unconstitutional but it failed WAR IN THE PACIFIC • Use the McGraw Hill book to complete the handout on the War in the Pacific. • The last question is an opinion question and should not match someone else’s • It should also be 5 sentences long WAR IN THE PACIFIC • Japan was successful the first two years of war. • Bataan Death March • American and Filipino prisoners were marched 60 miles through the jungle with no food • About 5000 Americans died. WAR IN THE PACIFIC • US gains superiority against Japan • War tactic: Island-Hopping • Liberating pacific islands from Japanese rule • Troops “hop” from island to island • Battle of Midway • turning point for USA • Led by Admiral Nimitz • Douglas MacArthur • Army commander in the Pacific • Assault on Okinawa • Attack on Japanese • similar to D-Day MANHATTAN PROJECT • Albert Einstein • (German refugee) • informs President Roosevelt that the Germans are developing an atomic bomb. • Organizes the Manhattan Project • Scientists to develop atomic bomb • Roosevelt died several months after his fourth electoral victory • President Harry S Truman is left to decide about dropping the bomb. THE BOMB IS DROPPED • In Hiroshima and Nagasaki • 230,00 killed • Truman felt that it saved American lives. • Japan surrenders in August of 1945 OCCUPATION OF JAPAN • General MacArthur was assigned the task of rebuilding • Japan lost their overseas empire. • Military leaders were put on trial and punished. • Japan renounced the use of nuclear weapons • Agreed not to wage war. NEWSPAPER ASSIGNMENT • Imagine you are a journalist in the 1940s. Your job is to write 3 articles about WWII. • You will select 3 of the following topics and write 3 separate stories. • For each topic, you must include the answers to all of the questions. • You also need to ad an image or an advertisement.