I am a Geographer Journal
1. How do you use geography every single day at home &/or school? Be specific and explain!
2. What tools do you use when you study geography? Be specific and explain!
**Remember to put a DATE, TITLE, and PAGE
NUMBER for all journal entries. ALWAYS update your table of contents.
INTRO TO GEO NOTES
• Geography is a description of the earth and the things on it….
TOOLS OF GEO:
• Direct Observation – visiting a region, aerial photos
• Mapping / Cartography – study & making maps
• Statistics - math
• Definition: computer systems that store and analyze geographic data
• Definition: a system that uses satellites and receivers to determine absolute location
FIVE THEMES OF GEOGRAPHY
• The earth is HUGE! So geographers divide this description into groups called the Five
Themes of Geography
• Where is it?
1. Absolute Location:
exactly where something is.
• Ex: address, latitude and longitude
about where something is?
• What is it like there?
• Physical Characteristics
• Human Characteristics
• Areas united by similar features
• How are areas similar and different?
• Ex: climate,
• Can be uniform or functional
3. Formal and Functional and
• There are three types of regions:
• Formal: clear boundaries, defined by human or physical characteristic
**ex: common government, Rocky Mountains
• Functional- area defined by one function that can cross political boundaries; area organized around focal point
** ex: highway systems, river drainage basin
• Perceptual: based on people’s attitudes and emotions about a place (may not be based on fact)
** ex: “Deep South” or “The Big Apple” (New York City)
• How are people and places connected?
• How do people shape the earth?
• What are reasons for movement?
5. Human Environment Interaction
• How does the environment affect Humans?
• How do we humans impact the environment?
FIVE THEMES PRACTICE
• The White House is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.
• The I-35 Corridor is a major area of trade, travel, and commuting.
• If you go to Antarctica, you’d better bring a coat!
• San Antonio’s Riverwalk, the Alamo, and the Hemisphere tower are well known landmarks.
• The Japanese tsunami caused a nuclear meltdown that made thousands evacuate the area.
• When I think of the “West” I usually think of everything west of the Rockies.
• In many of the countries colonized by Spain, they speak
Spanish and practice Catholicism.
• The Gulf states share the same coastline.
• I live in Converse which is next to Randolph Air force Base.
EXIT DISCUSSION: “L”
• List AT LEAST THREE different things you learned today about Geography that you did not know before in the L of your KWL charts from
• IF YOU WERE NOT HERE: Just tell me three things you learned about geography.
Why is Geography important?
• Lines that run north and south or vertical
• 0 degrees called Prime Meridian
• Goes through Greenwich, England
• Opposite end called “International Date Line” and found at 180 degrees
• Time is measured using meridians
• Every 15 degrees (east or west) equals one hour of time
• Imaginary lines that run west to east or horizontal
• 0 degrees latitude called equator
• Two other major parallels are the Tropic of
Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn
• Combining Longitude and Latitude allow people to identify exact locations of places on the earth
• (DON’T COPY below)
Denver is found at
39 degrees North
Latitude and 104 degrees West
Longitude and Time
• 24 time zones were created by dividing 15 degrees
(1 hour) into the total amount of Degrees in latitude
• The time at 0 degrees longitude is known as
Greenwich Mean Time or Universal Time
• When crossing the International Date Line you must either move your clock forward by 24 hours
(heading west) or set your clock by 24 hours
What is a map?
• A generalized view of an area, usually some portion of Earth’s surface, as seen from above at a greatly reduced size
What is a Globe?
• a 3-D representation of the earth
Why make maps and not use globes?
How do we read maps?
• Size of the map relative to reality (scale)
• What’s on the map (symbolization)
• Shape of the map (projection)
• Direction of a map (compass)
• What the map is about (title)
• Ratio of the distance on the map to the distance on the ground
Reading a Map
• Key: explains what the symbols stand for
• Compass Rose: marker that indicates directions
• Scale Bar: shows the relationship between map measurements and actual distances
Distances and directions are fairly accurately. This projection is best for showing limited eastwest areas that are not too far from the
• Pseudocylindrical projections represent the central meridian (verical lines of longitude) and each parallel
(horizontal lines of latitude) as a single straight line segment, but not the other meridians.
• A sinusoidal projection shows relative sizes accurately, but grossly distorts shapes. Distortion can be reduced by "interrupting" the map.
Projection distorts size and distance as it moves away from the Equator. These projections do accurately show true directions & shapes of landmasses, making these maps useful for sea travel.
Projection has minor distortions; the size & shapes near the eastern and western edges of the map are accurate. Polar areas appear somewhat distorted.
Main map used in your text book
Types of Maps
• Thematic maps: show a particular theme or topic.
• Geographers can use these maps to illustrate various features of Earth’s surface.
• Such features include:
• Landforms: mountains, hills, plains and plateaus
• Climate: long term weather patterns or rainfall
• Natural Vegetation: plant life that grows in a certain area if people have not change the natural environment
• Resources of an area
Special Purpose Maps
emphasize a single idea or particular kind of information about an area. The colors and symbols represent the location or distribution of activities / resources.
Physical Maps show the location and the
(shape) of earth’s physical features.
Usage of different colors or patterns indicate
Political Maps show the boundaries between countries. These maps often show human-made features such as capitals, cities, roads and railroads.
What are some visual ways to look at Data?
• Graphs, Charts, and Tables
a visual presentation of information
: facts displayed in a way that makes comparisons easy
• Visual presentation of information
• Generally consists of two axis in order to compare data
• 4 basic types of Graphs
• Change of two sets of variables over time
• Allows for the study of trends and changes
• Shows comparisons
• Generally shows differences in quantities
Circle Graph/Pie Graph
• Shows relationship of parts to the whole
• Percentages are indicated by size (Sometimes color)
• Similar to a bar graph
• Uses pictures to represent a subject
Charts and Tables
• Data arranged in columns or rows
• Facts displayed in an organized manner
• Shows what something is
• How something is done
5 Themes Review: MR H/ELP
• Converse, TX is next to Randolph Air Force Base.
• My publishing company ships textbooks all over the world.
• Southwest Airlines has interconnected travel routes all over the U.S.
• India is a tropical place with beautiful architecture.
• The river area needed electricity so we built a dam to generate power.
• NAFTA is a trade alliance that links Canada, the
U.S., and Mexico.
Map Projections Journal
1. Using your notes, explain what a map projection is and why they sometimes are not accurate.
2. Also using your notes, explain which one of the map projections you would use for a road trip across the
United States and why.