Chemical Bonds

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Chemical Bonds
Key Terms
Chemically Stable
Describes an atom
that has a full outer
energy level.
All noble gases have
the maximum
number of
electrons possible
in their outer shell
making them
stable, and this
unreactive.
Chemical Bond
A force that holds atoms together in a
compound.
Chemical Formula
Shorthand that tells
what elements a
compound contains
and the exact
number of atoms of
each element in a
unit of the
compound.
Common Name: Chalk
Chemical Name: Calcium
Carbonate
Chemical Formula: CaCO3
Binary Compound
A compound composed of two elements.
Salt Crystals
Common binary compounds include salt (NaCl),
ammonia (NH3), and water (H20).
Ion
A charged particle that has either more or
fewer electrons than protons.
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Ionic Bond
The force of attraction between
the opposite charges of the ions
in an ionic compound – result of
loss or gain of electron(s).
Covalent Bond
The attraction that
forms between
atoms when they
share electrons.
Polar Molecule
Molecule that
has a slightly
positive end and
a slightly
negative end.
Water is a polar molecule with positive
charges on one side and negative charges
on the other.
Nonpolar Molecule
Molecule made of two identical atoms that share the electrons
equally, or molecules that are symmetric, such as CO2.
The electrical charges in nonpolar Carbon Dioxide are evenly
distributed.
Oxidation Number
Number that indicates how many electrons an
atom must gain, lose, or share to become stable.
Polyatomic Ion
Positively or negatively
charged, covalently
bonded group of
atoms.
Carbonate CO32-
Sulfate SO42-
Hydrate
A compound that has water
chemically attached to it.
=
+
Carbonate
CO3 +
Water
H2O
Carbonic Acid
H2CO3
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