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Unit Three: Fungi and Plantae
Part 2: Kingdom Plantae
Miss Rytych
[email protected]
Color Me!
Green Pitcher Plant
This plant eats bugs! When an insect lands on one of the plant's leaves, it gets
stuck in a gooey liquid. Then it slides down the leaf into the plant's hollow stem
where the bug is digested like food in our stomachs.
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Target Sheet – Kingdom Plantae
Rating Scale: 1: I have no clue, 2: I’ve heard of this, but couldn’t elaborate on it, 3: I know most of it, but
I’m unclear about some of it, 4: I could teach this correctly to another classmate.
1. Describe four
challenges to plants Nutrients
living on land.
Maintaing Moisture
2. Identify the four
major groups of
3. Describe the
characteristics of a
4. List the four
major groups of
5. Describe ways
that humans
depend on
6. Relate the
structures of a
flower to their
Vascular Plants
Spores Not Seeds
Ex. Ferns, horsetails,
club mosses
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7. Describe three
main plant tissues
8. Trace the path of
nitrogen from the
atmosphere to a
plant’s roots.
9. Explain how
water loss from a
plant is regulated.
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Exploring Plants Objectives
Chapter 19 Plant Diversity (pages 418-439)
Chapter 20 The Life of a Flowering Plant (pages 440-457)
Chapter 21 Plant Nutrition and Transport (pages 458-473)
Chapter 19 Objectives - Plant Diversity
19.1.2 Describe four challenges to plants living on land and how the plants have adapted.
Adaptations to overcome the challenge
19.1.3 Identify the four major groups of plants and their major characteristics.
Plant Group
Major characteristics
19.3.1 Describe the characteristics of a pteridophyte, and give three examples of these plants.
What three structures do all vascular plants have?
A. ___________________ B. __________________ C. ____________________
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19.4.2 List the four main groups of gymnosperms.
What does a “naked” seed mean?
19.5.1 Describe 2 unique features of angiosperms and how these features help the plants.
19.5.2 Characterize the two largest evolutionary branches of angiosperms. Describe their differences.
19.5.3 Describe ways that humans depend on angiosperms. Name one way you utilized an angiosperm
Define “Fruit” _______________________________________________________________
Chapter 20 Objectives- The Life of a Flowering Plant
20.1.1 Relate the structures of a flower to their reproductive functions,
and indicate whether the structure is male, female, or neither.
Reproductive function
Name for structures B and C combined __________________
Name for structures E, F, and G combined ________________
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20.2.1 Describe root and shoot structures and functions.
20.2.2 What are the two functions of vascular tissue?
Describe three main plant tissues systems
Dermal Tissue
Vascular Tissue
Ground Tissue
Describe the two types of vascular tissue and their specific functions.
Type of Tissue
Specific functions
Chapter 21 Objectives- Plant Nutrition and Transport
21.1.3 Trace the path of nitrogen from the atmosphere to a plant’s roots. (Draw a diagram)
21.2.3 Explain how water loss from a plant is regulated.
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Identify the four major groups of plants
Write down the scientific group name for each marked group. Use page 423/your notes.
Now fill in the chart below using your notes and pages 422-423
Key Characteristics
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Plant Diversity
Concept 19.1 Land plants evolved from green algae. (pp. 420-424)
A plant is a multicellular autotroph-a many-celled organism that produces its own food-in which the
embryo develops within the female parent. Biologists hypothesize that plants evolved from certain
ancient green algae. These green algae lived in shallow water and could survive dry periods.
To live on land, plants must overcome four major challenges: obtaining resources from soil and air,
staying upright, maintaining moisture, and reproducing. Plants obtain resources from the soil through
roots. They obtain resources from the air through shoots and leaves. Vascular tissue, a system of tubeshaped cells, moves materials between the roots and shoots. Plants stand upright because their cell walls
are hardened with a chemical called lignin. Plants also have adaptations that prevent water loss. A waxy
cuticle coats leaves and stems, and stomata, microscopic pores in the leaf's surface, allow gases to be
exchanged at certain times of the day. Most plants do not need water to reproduce because sperm get to
the eggs in pollen grains that are carried by wind or animals.
Biologists divide plants into four groups. Bryophytes such as mosses are seedless, and most do not have
lignin-hardened vascular tissue. Pteridophytes such as ferns are seedless, vascular plants. Gymnosperms
such as pine trees have "naked" seeds that develop on specialized leaves. Angiosperms have flowers that
bear seeds within protective organs called ovaries.
All plants alternate between diploid (2n) and haploid (n) generations. The haploid generation, the
gametophyte, produces gametes. The diploid generation, the sporophyte, produces spores. A plant's life
cycle alternates between these two generations, which is called the alternation of generations.
1. Describe the hypothesis that explains how plants evolved from algae.
2. Summarize the four adaptations plants have for overcoming the challenges of living on land
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3. How are bryophytes and pteridophytes similar?
4. What is meant by the “alternation of generations”?
Concept 19.2 Mosses and other bryophytes were the first land plants. (pp. 425-426)
Bryophytes, mosses and their relatives, were the first land plants to evolve. They lack
lignin-hardened vascular tissue.
The gametophyte is the dominant generation. The gametophytes produce male and
female gametes in separate locations on their tips. Sperm must swim through a moist
film of water to fertilize the eggs. A fertilized egg grows into the sporophyte, which
produces and releases spores that grow into new gametophytes. Besides the mosses,
two other groups of bryophytes are hornworts and liverworts.
5. What is the dominant generation in the life cycle of a bryophyte?
6. What are the names of three groups of bryophytes?
Concept 19.3 Ferns and other pteridophytes are seedless vascular plants. (pp. 427-430)
Pteridophytes, ferns and their relatives, have lignin in their support tissue and have vascular tissue that
transports nutrients and water. Pteridophytes were the main plants in forests of the Carboniferous period of
Earth's history. The remains of these plants formed fossil fuels used today as an energy source.
The sporophyte is the dominant fern generation. The brown "dots"
on the undersides of mature fern leaves are filled with spores. The
spores grow into gametophytes that produce sperm and eggs.
Sperm must swim through a film of water to fertilize eggs. Besides
the ferns, two other pteridophyte groups are club mosses and
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7. What adaptations enable pteridophytes to grow taller than bryophytes?
8. What are the names of the three groups of pteridophytes?
Concept 19.4 Pollen and seeds evolved in gymnosperms. (pp. 431-433)
Gymnosperms are plants that bear seeds that are not enclosed in an ovary. Three adaptations that make
gymnosperms well-suited to live in diverse land habitats include a small gametophyte, pollen, and seeds. The
sporophyte is the dominant generation. For example, a pine tree is a sporophyte on which the tiny gametophytes
live in cones. The male gametophytes are pollen grains that contain the cells that develop into sperm. Because
sperm travel in pollen grains that are carried by wind, sperm can get to eggs in the absence of water. The female
gametophytes develop within structures called ovules. A seed is a plant embryo with its food supply inside a
protective coat. The plant embryo forms when a sperm fertilizes an egg in an ovule. This embryo is the new
sporophyte. Four groups of gymnosperms are gnetophytes, gingkos, conifers, and cycads.
9. How can gymnosperms live in more diverse land habitats than pteridophytes?
10. Name the four groups of gymnosperms and label the
gymnosperm to the right.
Concept 19.5 Flowers and fruits evolved in angiosperms. (pp. 434-437)
Angiosperms are flowering plants. Their reproductive structures are
flowers, a specialized type of plant shoot. The gametophytes of
angiosperms develop within the flowers of the sporophyte. Some
flowers attract insects or other animals that carry pollen from one
flower to another. Other flowers are adapted for wind pollination.
The male reproductive organs of a flower are stamens. The female
reproductive organs are carpels. Angiosperms have a "double
fertilization" that produces a zygote and an endosperm, the nutrientstoring tissue that nourishes the embryo. As seeds develop, the ovary
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wall thickens, forming a fruit. Fruits protect and help spread seeds.
Angiosperms are the most diverse and widespread of all plants. Most angiosperms are either dicots or
monocots. Angiosperms improve the quality of human life in many ways, including providing food and
the materials for clothing, medicines, and furniture.
11. What are the functions of flowers and fruit to angiosperms?
12. Name 5 items in that are examples of how angiosperms improve the quality of human life.
Ex. Cotton Jeans are made from a plant fiber.
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Classification & Parts
1. Observe the ferns, where are the spores located? State two reasons why you think they are
where they are :
2. Flowering plants have two different types of seeds, monocotyledon (monocot) and
dicotyledon (dicot). The cotyledon is the part of the seed that stores food for the
embryonic (baby) plant. How are monocots and dicots different?
3. Take apart a bean and a corn kernel. Draw and label each as monocot or dicot based on what
you find as you open it
4. List two advantages to for having seeds.
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1. What is the name of plants that house their seeds in flowers? ____________________
2. What is the name of plants that house their seeds in cones? ______________________
3. Not all flowers are perfect, but those that have both the male and female parts are. They
are called complete or perfect flowers. Read the paragraph below and fill in the missing
words that describe each flower part.
The _________________ is the male reproductive part of the flower and produces pollen.
The tip of the stamen is called the ________________. The anther produces
_______________. A plant usually has 4 to 6 stamens. The __________________is the
female part of the flower and consists of an __________________ which holds the
____________. A mature ovary is called a _______________. The ovary is the bulb like
structure at the bottom of the flower. At the tip of the carpel is the _______________ This
is the sticky part that traps the pollen. The __________________ of flowers are usually
bright colors to help attract animals and insects. Animals and insects help spread pollen and
seeds. Below the petals are small leaves called ________________________ that open and
close the petals when the flower is in bloom.
4. Label the underlined structures above on the flower picture below.
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5. Observe the cones. Cones are male or female they cannot be both like flowers. Looking at
the cones, how can you tell the difference between male and female cones?
STATION #3: MALE OR FEMALE? (p. 442-444)
1. Observe the flowers at the lab table. These flowers have been cut in half so you can see
the reproductive structures. Make a drawing of each flower and label as many
reproductive structures as possible.
2. Were any of the flowers perfect flowers? Which ones and how could you tell?
3. Were any of the flowers male or female flowers? Which ones and how could you tell?
4. A perfect flower can produce fertilized seeds on its own because it contains both male
and female reproductive parts. Imperfect flowers contain only male or female parts and
need their seeds to be fertilized. Describe how a flower’s seeds can be fertilized by
A. Birds
B. Bees
C. People
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1. Mosses are considered nonvascular plants. They have no true roots, stems or leaves and
no vascular tissue. They reproduce when it rains. Look at the moss at the table and draw
what it looks like below.
2. How does the lack of vascular tissue limit where it lives and how it lives?
3. The epidermis is the outside protective skin of the carrot that contains the root hairs.
Just inside the epidermis is the cortex, the large orange area where sugars and starches
are stored. As the tissue grows in diameter the phloem (food carrying tissue) are pushed
toward the outside of the root. The xylem (water carrying tissue) is then pushed toward
the center of the root. The xylem and phloem travel through the roots, stems and leaves
transporting water and nutrients.
Draw the carrot below and label each of the underlined parts in the above reading.
4. Pull the celery stalk out of the food coloring solution and observe the cut bottom end and
the stalk itself. Why has the color traveled up the stalk? What structures carry the
food coloring?
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1. HYPOTHESIS: Which of the plants provided are fruit? Which are vegetables?
2. Define Fruit=
3. Draw pictures of the plants at this station. Label the seeds.
4. Are the seeds of all plants located in the same place? Why is this?
5. Vegetables and fruits are both plants, but are different parts of the plant. A vegetable
is the root, stems or leaves of a plant and a fruit is the ripened ovary. Decide if the
following plants are fruits or vegetables. Decide what part of the following plants that
we eat- root, stem, leaf, seeds, ovary, seed and ovary combined, or the entire
plant. Some may surprise you!
Sample Produce
1. Tomatoes
2. Apples
3. Carrots
4. Strawberries
5. Spinach
6. Green Beans
7. Green Pepper
8. Parsley
9. Celery
10. Cucumber
11. Lemon
Plant part that we eat
Fruit or Vegetable
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1. What is transpiration?
2. What does the vascular system transport?
3. What specialized part of the root takes up water and nutrients?
4. What does the xylem transport and in which direction?
5. Is the movement of water passive or active transport?
6. What property of water allows it to be pulled up to the top of the tree?
7. What part of the vascular system transports sugars down the plant?
8. Is this active or passive transport?
9. What structures release water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide out of the plant?
10. Draw a tree showing the complete vascular system and include the movement of water
and nutrients in the correct direction through the correct tissue structure.
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Survival of the Botanist
Castaway_____________________ and _____________________
Over the weekend, you and a friend decide to jet off and go on vacation. Unfortunately, your airplane
encounters mechanical issues and crashes. You and your friend survive, but are now marooned on an island.
This particular island does not have animals, but every plant you could ever need.
In order to survive you will need to use the resources available to find food, shelter, clothing and medicine.
You also must use at least one representative from each of the five categories of plants:
Phylum Bryophytes (non-vascular)
Phylum Pteriodophyta (seedless)
Phylum Coniferophyta (conifers)
Phylum Anthophyta (monocots)
Phylum Anthophyta (dicots)
Shelter – Walls
Shelter – Roof
Shelter – Floor
Shelter – Bed
Shelter – Table
Shelter –
Name of Plant
Specific Use
Type of Plant
(state specifically HOW this plant will
be used)
(Bryophyte, Pteriodophyta,
Coniferophyta, Anthophyta monocot, or Anthophyta – dicot)
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Shelter – Your
Choice (heat,
light, air
Food –
Food – Protein
Food – Fat
Food – Dessert
Food – Fruit
Food – Vegetable
Clothing –
Clothing – Shoes
Clothing – Hats
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Medicine – Pain
Medicine –
Sunburn Relief
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Fungi and Plant Review Sheet
F1. Describe the basic structure of fungi.
1. Label and describe the structure of fungi.
F3. Compare and contrast the characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi.
2. Describe the five characteristics of the Kingdom Fungi.
3. Complete the following table.
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F4. Describe two examples of symbiotic fungi.
4. Compare and contrast lichens and mycorrhizae
Symbiotic Fungi
F6. Describe some human uses of fungi.
5. Describe four ways humans use fungi.
F7. Explain the role of fungi in recycling organic matter.
6. Describe three ecological roles fungi have.
P1. Describe four challenges to plants living on land.
7. Explain how plants overcame the following challenges to living on land.
How do plants prevent dehydration?
How do plants stay maintain their height?
How do plants obtain nutrients from above and below?
How do plants reproduce without water?
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P2. Identify the four major groups of plants.
8. Complete the chart to compare and contrast the 4 major groups of plants.
Key Characteristics
Derived Characteristic (see
page 423)
P6. Relate the structures of a flower to their reproductive functions.
9. Label the following diagram.
Which structures comprise the female parts?
Which structures comprise the male parts?
Which structures are not used in reproduction?
Is this a perfect or imperfect flower?
What do we call a ripened ovary?
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P7. Describe three main plant tissues systems.
10. What is the difference between vascular and non-vascular plants?
11. What is the difference between xylem and phloem?
13. What is a taproot? Which plant did you observe with a taproot?