Respiratory System

Respiratory System
Parts of the Respiratory System
• The respiratory system has
ciliated cells
• The lungs are the organ in which
this system functions
• This system keeps the human
body alive and running by
oxygenating the blood and
removing carbon dioxide
• The function is to transport gases
to and from the circulatory
Mechanics of Breathing
• Breathing is a reaction due to changes of pressure in the
• External respiration in some organisms includes inhaling and
• Humans use the nose, mouth, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm
to breathe
• The diaphragm is a sheet of muscles that lies across the
bottom of the chest cavity and pumps carbon dioxide out of
the lungs and pump oxygen in
• When the diaphragm contracts it breathes in oxygen and
when it relaxes it breathes out the carbon dioxide
• Alveolus is any of the tiny air cells and lungs where oxygen
and carbon dioxide are exchanged
• We need this in our body to live or there would be too much
carbon dioxide and no oxygen in the lungs
• The alveoli have walls that are only one cell thick and are
called the respiratory surface
• This covers about 70 square meters and is surrounded by the
Alveoli and Capillaries
• Alveoli are the tiny air cells of the lungs where carbon and
oxygen are exchanged
• Capillaries are the arterioles that branch into a network of
other tiny vessels
• The alveoli are surrounded by the capillaries. The capillaries
allow for the exchange of oxygen and other gases.
• The imbalance in the exchange of these gases can lead to
dangerous respiratory disorders.
Ciliated Epithelium
• Ciliated Epithelium is a lining on the respiratory passage that
defends against infections of the airways.
• Smoking breaks down the cilia and slowly wears it away.
• Epithelium is a basic type of animal tissue, nervous tissue, and
connective tissue
• Other functions include absorption, transcellular transport,
and detection of sensation
Larynx and Pharynx
Larynx is the organ of voice
Placed at the upper part of the air passage
Forms the lower anterior wall of the pharynx
The pharynx acts as a passageways for food on its way to the
stomach and air enroot to the lungs.
• The larynx joins the trachea and is located directly under the
• Its formed from pieces of cartilage bound together by
• Air is drawn from the pharynx to the larynx
Skin’s Role
• Skin contains sensory receptors that monitor the external
environment and mechanisms that rid the body of wastes
• Plants also have respiratory systems but the directionality of
gas exchange can be opposite to that in animals
• Respiration helps prevent the dehydration
Inherited Disorders
• Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through families that
cause thick sticky mucous to build up in the lungs, digestive
tract, and other areas of the body
• It is one of the most common chronic diseases in children and
young adults and it is a life-threatening disorder
• Another one is the Cardiac Asthma occurs in left ventricular
heart failure and must be distinguished from bronchial
"Diseases & Disorders of the Respiratory System." IvyRose Holistic : Holistic Health,
Alternative Medicine, Human Biology, Anatomy & Physiology and Chemistry Study Pages.
Web. 15 Dec. 2011. <>.
"Respiratory System Information." University of Pennsylvania Health System | Penn Medicine.
Web. 15 Dec. 2011.
Holt, Rineheart and Winston: Modern Biology