Design For Engineering Materials Science 2006 Greg Heitkamp This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0402616.) Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Material Sciences Definition • The study of the characteristics and uses of the various materials, such as metals, ceramics, and plastics, that are employed in science and technology. http://www.answers.com/topic/m aterials-science • A multidisciplinary approach relating to the performance and function of material in any and all applications, micro, nano, and Materials Science • In order to create effective designs engineers must have knowledge of different materials. • Materials have properties that are unique to them. Engineers must understand these properties to create effective quality designs. Branches of Material Sciences • Ceramics • Metals and Alloys • Composites • Polymers • Crystals • Semiconductors Ceramics • Name derived from the Greek word Kermos which means Burnt Stuff. • Inorganic materials who are developed from the action of heat. • Traditionally have been hard, brittle, and porous. • Resistant to sunlight and weathering. • Some are semiconductors and used for Integrated Circuit Chips. • Some are superconductors at low temperatures Metals and Alloys • Metal is an element that forms ions and forms metallic bonds. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metal • Process Metallurgy is on of the oldest applied sciences. http://neon.mems.cmu.edu/cramb/Processing /history.html • An alloy is a metal composed of more than one element. Engineering alloys include the castirons and steels, aluminum alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, nickel alloys, zinc alloys and copper alloys. For example, brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/WofMatE/Metals&A lloys.htm Composites • Are defined as a materials made of two distinct and different materials and having the best qualities of all the materials. Gradwell J, Welch M, Martin E, Technology – Shaping Our World. Goodheart-Willcox New York 2000. • Examples: Fiberglass, Kelvar, Thermoplastic Resins http://www.compositesone.com/ http://www.acp-composites.com/ Polymers • Derived from two Greek words polys meaning many and meros meaning parts. • Used to describe molecules consisting of structural units and large number of repeating units connected by covalent chemical bonds • Four main groups : Thermosets Thermoplastics Elastomers Crystals • Defined as a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are packed in a regular ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cryst al • Examples snowflakes, diamonds salt • Effects by crystalline materials Semiconductors • Materials that will conduct electricity under the right conditions. • Examples : Silicon, Germanium • Major Usage Integrated Circuit Chips (IC’s), Diodes • Two types : P type and N type http://computer.howstuffworks.com /diode.htm Standards Addressed Standard 2: Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology CC. New technologies can create new processes. Standard 3: Students develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connection between technology and other fields of study. Standards Addressed Continued H. Technological innovation often results when ideas, knowledge, or skills are shared within a technology are shared within a technology, among technologies, or across other fields. J. Technological progress promotes the advancement of science and mathematics. Standards Addressed Continued Standard 7: Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history. H. The evolution of civilization has been directly by, and has in turn affected, the development and use of tools and materials. K. The iron age was defined by the use of iron and steel as primary materials for tools. Standards Addressed Continued Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving. L. Many technological problems require multidisciplinary approach. Standards Addressed Continued Standard 19: Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use manufacturing technologies. M. Materials have different qualities and maybe classified as natural, synthetic, or mixed. Q. Chemical technologies provide a means for humans to alter or modify materials and produce chemical products.