Engineering For Design - Engineering Technology Pathways

Design For Engineering
Materials Science
2006 Greg Heitkamp
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science
Foundation under Grant No. 0402616.) Any opinions, findings and
conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those
of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the National
Science Foundation (NSF).
Material Sciences Definition
• The study of the characteristics and
uses of the various materials, such
as metals, ceramics, and plastics,
that are employed in science and
• A multidisciplinary approach
relating to the performance and
function of material in any and all
applications, micro, nano, and
Materials Science
• In order to create effective designs
engineers must have knowledge of
different materials.
• Materials have properties that are
unique to them. Engineers must
understand these properties to
create effective quality designs.
Branches of Material Sciences
• Ceramics
• Metals and Alloys
• Composites
• Polymers
• Crystals
• Semiconductors
• Name derived from the Greek word
Kermos which means Burnt Stuff.
• Inorganic materials who are
developed from the action of heat.
• Traditionally have been hard,
brittle, and porous.
• Resistant to sunlight and
• Some are semiconductors and used
for Integrated Circuit Chips.
• Some are superconductors at low
Metals and Alloys
• Metal is an element that forms ions and forms
metallic bonds.
• Process Metallurgy is on of the oldest applied
• An alloy is a metal composed of more than one
element. Engineering alloys include the castirons and steels, aluminum alloys, magnesium
alloys, titanium alloys, nickel alloys, zinc alloys
and copper alloys. For example, brass is an
alloy of copper and zinc.
• Are defined as a materials made of
two distinct and different materials
and having the best qualities of all
the materials.
Gradwell J, Welch M, Martin E,
Technology – Shaping Our World.
Goodheart-Willcox New York 2000.
• Examples: Fiberglass, Kelvar,
Thermoplastic Resins
• Derived from two Greek words
polys meaning many and meros
meaning parts.
• Used to describe molecules
consisting of structural units and
large number of repeating units
connected by covalent chemical
• Four main groups :
• Defined as a solid in which the
constituent atoms, molecules, or
ions are packed in a regular
ordered, repeating pattern
extending in all three spatial
• Examples snowflakes, diamonds
• Effects by crystalline materials
• Materials that will conduct
electricity under the right
• Examples : Silicon, Germanium
• Major Usage Integrated Circuit
Chips (IC’s), Diodes
• Two types : P type and N type
Standards Addressed
Standard 2: Students will develop an
understanding of the core concepts
of technology
CC. New technologies can create
new processes.
Standard 3: Students develop an
understanding of the relationships
among technologies and the
connection between technology
and other fields of study.
Standards Addressed Continued
H. Technological innovation often
results when ideas, knowledge, or
skills are shared within a
technology are shared within a
technology, among technologies, or
across other fields.
J. Technological progress promotes
the advancement of science and
Standards Addressed Continued
Standard 7: Students will develop an
understanding of the influence of
technology on history.
H. The evolution of civilization has
been directly by, and has in turn
affected, the development and use
of tools and materials.
K. The iron age was defined by the
use of iron and steel as primary
materials for tools.
Standards Addressed Continued
Standard 10: Students will develop
an understanding the role of
troubleshooting, research and
development, invention and
innovation, and experimentation in
problem solving.
L. Many technological problems
require multidisciplinary approach.
Standards Addressed Continued
Standard 19: Students will develop
an understanding of and be able to
select and use manufacturing
M. Materials have different
qualities and maybe classified as
natural, synthetic, or mixed.
Q. Chemical technologies provide a
means for humans to alter or
modify materials and produce
chemical products.