Egypt History and Politics

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Egypt

World History & Geography to 1500 AD

PowerPoint Slides

Mr. Mable

Tucker High School

2012

SOL Standards Chapter 1

STANDARD WHI.2a

The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and China and the civilizations of the Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Nubians, by b) describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery.

Development of social patterns

Hereditary rulers: Dynasties of kings, pharaohs

Rigid class system where slavery was accepted

Development of political patterns

World’s first states (i.e., city-states, kingdoms, empires)

Centralized government, often based on religious authority

Written law codes (e.g., Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi)

Development of economic patterns

Use of metal (e.g., bronze, iron) tools and weapons

Increasing agricultural surplus: Better tools, plows, irrigation

Development of the world’s first cities

Development of the practice of slavery within most cultures in the ancient world, taking various forms

Three Major Time periods of

Ancient Egypt

Achievements

Old Kingdom

2650-2134 BC

Built enormous tombs &

pyramids

.

Decline

Power struggles, crop failures, & cost of pyramids.

Middle Kingdom

2040-1640 BC

Land drained for farming.

Hyksos

invaded & conquered.

New Kingdom

1550-1070 BC

Sea Trade &

Became an empire.

Conquered much of

Near East

Nubians, Persian,

Greeks, & Romans invaded.

Egyptian History is divided into three main periods

The Old Kingdom

The Middle Kingdom

The New Kingdom

Menes is

Narmer

He changed his name after he

unified

Egypt!

The History of Egypt begins with Menes

Menes Unites upper Egypt and Lower

Egypt, joining the two into a united kingdom

In doing this, Menes establishes the first Egyptian Dynasty

Lower Egypt

Upper Egypt

Union of Two Crowns

• Red Crown

– Upper Egypt

• White Crown

– Lower Egypt

• Menes

– Overthrew the king of

Lower Egypt

– Wore a Double Crown

• Unification

– Joining of separate parts into one whole

Crown of Lower Egypt

Red

Crown

• Upper Egypt

• Symbol:

Vulture

Crown of Upper Egypt

• White

Crown

• Lower Egypt

• Symbol:

Cobra

Double Crown

• King Tut’s Death

Mask

• Notice

Double

Crown

• Vulture and Cobra

The Pharaoh

• God

-King

• Pharaoh Means “

BIG HOUSE

• owns all the land and people and what people posses

• Pharaoh's will is the law

• irrigation

• no city walls

The Pharaoh

• God-King (Therefore a

Theocracy )

• Religious

• direct descendant of the Sun god

• HE IS THE

LIVING GOD !

• controls access to the afterlife

• July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by the

Pharaoh

– 365 day calendar.

Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork

IV. Social Order

Priests

Nobles/Warriors

Scribes

Merchants

Peasants/Slaves

The Old Kingdom 2700-2200 B.C.

The Old Kingdom was a period of great prosperity.

Time of Great Pyramid Building

Kings became Pharaohs.

The Pharaoh was seen as divine , or godlike.

The Pharaoh wielded absolute power, but used advisors to help them.

The Chief advisor to the Pharaoh was the

Vizier

.

Social order and customs were established in the OLD KINGDOM

First Intermediate Period

• civil wars

• Famine

• Drought

• Loss of trade

• Pharaohs became weak

• Open to foreign Invasions

• After the fall of the Old Kingdom there was a period of chaos for about 150 years

A new dynasty brought stability.

The Pharaoh was still on top…

But the Nobles were more powerful and ruled things

The dynasties of the middle kingdom were weak and disorganized.

No strong CENTRAL power; Power was Diffused!!!

Middle Kingdom 2050-1750 BCE

• End of civil wars , & farming and trade return

• move capital south to Upper Egypt

(Thebes)

• public improvements

– drain swamps, canal to Red Sea

• belief in afterlife common people expands to include

• tombs instead of pyramids

– better protection for mummies.

Second Intermediate Period

• The Middle Kingdom ended with the invasion of a people called the

Hyksos

• The Hyksos had

Chariots and bronze weapons to the Egyptians.

The Egyptians were easily defeated.

• Eventually the Egyptians overthrew the Hyksos and established the New Kingdom

Hyksos

• Hyksos is Egyptian for

FOREIGN

RULERS

• Chariots &Bronze weapons

VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE

• Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt

• Known as the

Empire period

• development of “public” and “private” zones at temples.

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2 3 4 5

6

Ahmose I leading Egyptians against the

Hyksos

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2 3 4 5

6

New Kingdom 1567-1085 BCE

• Egyptian Threw out Foreign Invaders

• The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom took a more aggressive ruling style

• Egypt became the most powerful state in Southwest Asia.

• Egypt became an Empire! Ruled

Territory outside its own.

• Golden

Age of Egypt

VI. New Kingdom 1550-1075 BCE

• Characterized by a more militaristic imperialistic nature and

– incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses

– development of a professional army

• became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion

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2 3 4 5

6

She was the first woman to be Pharaoh

She took power for herself

She had to pose as a man to cement her authority.

She built many monuments and temples.

VI. Threats to Tradition

• Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347

B.C.) introduced the worship of

Aton, god of the sun disk , as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm.

• Changed name to Akhenaten (“It is well with Aton”)

• He closed the temples of other gods and especially endeavored to lessen the power of Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes.

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2 3 4 5

6

Aten

• Unifying deity, lord of all

• Akhenaten ( heretic king) tried to unify religions and kingdoms

• No physical form – just sun rays

VI. Threats to Tradition

1355-1335 BCE

• Nefertiti

– Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even partially reject polytheism

– political move against priests of Amon-Re

– moved capital to Amarna

– worshipped Aton, the sun disk

• royal inbreeding.

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2 3 4 5

6

Akhenaton

• Amomhotep IV became Akhneaton

• Aton was the sun god

• Ankh was the symbol for

LIFE

• Therefore, he was the

LIVING Sun God!!!

Influences????

Remember that the Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt at this time!

Influences????

Amen or Amun was the overall god of the Egyptians.

Christians say AMEN after their prayers

Brief Period of Monotheism

• The Belief in

ONE god

Mono = one

Theism or theistic

= religion

The sun disc Aten shining on the names of the royal family

Tutankhamen

1335-1325 BCE

• Tut = The King

• Ahnk = Living

• Amun = god

King Tut:Tutankhamen

Became Pharaoh after

the death of Akhenaton.

Restored the old religious

practices

Has the only tomb to be

found intact

VI. Tutankhamen

1335-1325 BCE

• (King Tut)

• child ruler

• ruled nine years, died at

18

• young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser person (noble) resulting in preservation

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2 3 4 5

6

Ramses II

He fathered over 100 children

Some think he’s the Pharaoh of Hebrew Exodus

Think he is the face of the Sphinx

Abu Simbel : Temple of Ramses the Great

VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)

• greatest

New Kingdom ruler

• military leader of Egypt

• expanded into southern

Turkey

• built many monuments himself to

• last gasp of Egyptian power.

VI. Ramses II (1279-1213)

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2 3 4 5

6

Ramses the Great today

Abu Simble: Ramses II (1279-1213)

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2 3 4 5

6

Invasion of the “Sea Peoples”

Decline

• Egypt fell into a period of decline and foreign invasion.

• Conquered by the Greeks,

Persians, & Romans.

• The last Pharaoh was Cleopatra

VII

• committed suicide rather than surrender to the Romans.

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Three Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt

OLD

KINGDOM

Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.

Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.

Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old

Kingdom.

MIDDLE

KINGDOM

Large drainage project created arable farmland.

NEW

KINGDOM

Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the

Euphrates River. Traders had contacts with Middle East and

Crete. Hatshepsut encouraged trade.

Corruption and rebellions were common.

Ramses II expanded

Egyptian rule to Syria.

Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta region.

Egyptian power declined.

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