World History & Geography to 1500 AD
Tucker High School
The student will demonstrate knowledge of ancient river valley civilizations, including those of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Indus River Valley, and China and the civilizations of the Hebrews, Phoenicians, and Nubians, by b) describing the development of social, political, and economic patterns, including slavery.
Development of social patterns
Hereditary rulers: Dynasties of kings, pharaohs
Rigid class system where slavery was accepted
Development of political patterns
World’s first states (i.e., city-states, kingdoms, empires)
Centralized government, often based on religious authority
Written law codes (e.g., Ten Commandments, Code of Hammurabi)
Development of economic patterns
Use of metal (e.g., bronze, iron) tools and weapons
Increasing agricultural surplus: Better tools, plows, irrigation
Development of the world’s first cities
Development of the practice of slavery within most cultures in the ancient world, taking various forms
Built enormous tombs &
Power struggles, crop failures, & cost of pyramids.
Land drained for farming.
invaded & conquered.
Sea Trade &
Became an empire.
Conquered much of
Greeks, & Romans invaded.
Egyptian History is divided into three main periods
•The Old Kingdom
•The Middle Kingdom
•The New Kingdom
He changed his name after he
The History of Egypt begins with Menes
Menes Unites upper Egypt and Lower
Egypt, joining the two into a united kingdom
In doing this, Menes establishes the first Egyptian Dynasty
• Red Crown
– Upper Egypt
• White Crown
– Lower Egypt
– Overthrew the king of
– Wore a Double Crown
– Joining of separate parts into one whole
• Upper Egypt
• Lower Egypt
• King Tut’s Death
• Vulture and Cobra
• Pharaoh Means “
• owns all the land and people and what people posses
• Pharaoh's will is the law
• no city walls
• God-King (Therefore a
• direct descendant of the Sun god
• HE IS THE
LIVING GOD !
• controls access to the afterlife
• July-Sept, during floods life is controlled by the
– 365 day calendar.
Role played by size in Egyptian Artwork
IV. Social Order
The Old Kingdom 2700-2200 B.C.
The Old Kingdom was a period of great prosperity.
Time of Great Pyramid Building
Kings became Pharaohs.
The Pharaoh was seen as divine , or godlike.
The Pharaoh wielded absolute power, but used advisors to help them.
The Chief advisor to the Pharaoh was the
Social order and customs were established in the OLD KINGDOM
• civil wars
• Loss of trade
• Pharaohs became weak
• Open to foreign Invasions
• After the fall of the Old Kingdom there was a period of chaos for about 150 years
A new dynasty brought stability.
The Pharaoh was still on top…
But the Nobles were more powerful and ruled things
The dynasties of the middle kingdom were weak and disorganized.
No strong CENTRAL power; Power was Diffused!!!
• End of civil wars , & farming and trade return
• move capital south to Upper Egypt
• public improvements
– drain swamps, canal to Red Sea
• belief in afterlife common people expands to include
• tombs instead of pyramids
– better protection for mummies.
• The Middle Kingdom ended with the invasion of a people called the
• The Hyksos had
Chariots and bronze weapons to the Egyptians.
The Egyptians were easily defeated.
• Eventually the Egyptians overthrew the Hyksos and established the New Kingdom
• Hyksos is Egyptian for
• Chariots &Bronze weapons
• Ahmose I expelled the invading Hyksos and reunited Egypt
• Known as the
• development of “public” and “private” zones at temples.
• Egyptian Threw out Foreign Invaders
• The Pharaohs of the New Kingdom took a more aggressive ruling style
• Egypt became the most powerful state in Southwest Asia.
• Egypt became an Empire! Ruled
Territory outside its own.
Age of Egypt
• Characterized by a more militaristic imperialistic nature and
– incorporated chariot, bronze working, horses
– development of a professional army
• became a slave based economy fueled by war and expansion
She was the first woman to be Pharaoh
She took power for herself
She had to pose as a man to cement her authority.
She built many monuments and temples.
• Amenhotep IV (c. 1362-1347
B.C.) introduced the worship of
Aton, god of the sun disk , as the chief god and pursued his worship with enthusiasm.
• Changed name to Akhenaten (“It is well with Aton”)
• He closed the temples of other gods and especially endeavored to lessen the power of Amon-Re and his priesthood at Thebes.
• Unifying deity, lord of all
• Akhenaten ( heretic king) tried to unify religions and kingdoms
• No physical form – just sun rays
– Wife of Akhenaton the only pharaoh to even partially reject polytheism
– political move against priests of Amon-Re
– moved capital to Amarna
– worshipped Aton, the sun disk
• royal inbreeding.
• Amomhotep IV became Akhneaton
• Aton was the sun god
• Ankh was the symbol for
• Therefore, he was the
LIVING Sun God!!!
Remember that the Hebrews were enslaved in Egypt at this time!
Amen or Amun was the overall god of the Egyptians.
Christians say AMEN after their prayers
• The Belief in
Mono = one
Theism or theistic
The sun disc Aten shining on the names of the royal family
• Tut = The King
• Ahnk = Living
• Amun = god
• Became Pharaoh after
the death of Akhenaton.
• Restored the old religious
• Has the only tomb to be
• (King Tut)
• child ruler
• ruled nine years, died at
• young death meant burial in the tomb of a lesser person (noble) resulting in preservation
He fathered over 100 children
Some think he’s the Pharaoh of Hebrew Exodus
Think he is the face of the Sphinx
Abu Simbel : Temple of Ramses the Great
New Kingdom ruler
• military leader of Egypt
• expanded into southern
• built many monuments himself to
• last gasp of Egyptian power.
Ramses the Great today
• Egypt fell into a period of decline and foreign invasion.
• Conquered by the Greeks,
Persians, & Romans.
• The last Pharaoh was Cleopatra
• committed suicide rather than surrender to the Romans.
Pharaohs organized a strong central state, were absolute rulers, and were considered gods.
Egyptians built pyramids at Giza.
Power struggles, crop failures, and cost of pyramids contributed to the collapse of the Old
Large drainage project created arable farmland.
Powerful pharaohs created a large empire that reached the
Euphrates River. Traders had contacts with Middle East and
Crete. Hatshepsut encouraged trade.
Corruption and rebellions were common.
Ramses II expanded
Egyptian rule to Syria.
Hyksos invaded and occupied the delta region.
Egyptian power declined.