Second Grade STEM Investigation – Lesson 2 What is Engineering and what do Engineers do? Area of Focus Explanation Overview Students consider the work of engineers and explore various type of engineering through partner and whole-group discussions and a sorting activity. Students consider ways that children use engineering in a Rube Goldberg video. They extend their ideas by using items from lesson 1 and consider ways items have been redesigned. Standards Science: 2-3 INQF Scientists develop explanations, using observations and what they already know about the world. Explanations should be based on evidence from investigations. 2-3 APPA Simple problems can be solved through a technological design process that includes; defining the problem, gathering information, exploring ideas, making a plan, testing possible solutions to see which is best, and communicating the results. CCSS ELA: 2 SL.1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. Learning Target Assessment I can explain what an engineer is and what they do. I can explain how engineers influence technology in its design, production, and function. Formative Assessment: Engineers Probe—based on Uncovering Student Ideas – Vol. 3: pg. 93 modified Materials Internet Access with display Items from Part 1 (phone, staple remover, watch, white out, pencil, paper clip) Other versions of the items of Part 1 example: dial phone & cell phone Chart paper Markers Vocabulary engineer, engineering, design /re-design Area of Focus Engineers Formative Assessment Explanation Teacher Notes Engage Depending on reading level, read together the Engineers probe. Have students choose one or more students with which they most agree and write their response. When most students have finished writing, pair students to discuss their responses. The “best” response is Amy’s response. However, Lamar and John have some correct ideas in their responses as well. Four Corners: If time, have students share as a whole group and/or determine locations for students to group themselves around the response that they most agreed. Example: Say each of the four children’s name and assign one name to a corner of the room for students to meet and discuss. 3-14-13 Listening to student responses will help you adjust instruction. What is engineering? What is an engineer? What is an engineer’s role in technology? In small groups, discuss the following questions: What is an engineer? What is engineering? After a few minutes, elicit thoughts from each group. Record them on chart paper. An engineer is someone who designs something to solve a problem. Explore Engineering is the application of science in the design of objects or machines that solve a problem. Show video: http://pbskids.org/designsquad/video/package-design/ This is from PBS’s Design Squad—there are numerous types of engineers. This video shows the job of a packaging engineer. After viewing, have students discuss whether there is anything to add onto the list previously created. Add those onto the chart. Show definitions of each. Discuss what students notice and/or have questions about. What types of engineers are you aware of? What do they do? Explore Explain there are different types of engineers. Ask, “Are there any types of engineers that you know about? What is it that they do?” Elicit whole group, or have students discuss in small groups and share out. After several minutes, compile the brainstorm on one chart for public record. One suggested layout: Types of Engineers / Engineering What do they do? Activity: Hand out a bag of cards to each table group. Explain that there are descriptions of different types of engineers and what they do, as well as pictures that relate to their field. Have students read the cards and match a picture card to go with them. Tell students to be prepared to explain why they matched the cards together. Have multiple engineer descriptions available because the same kind of engineers may be involved in designing a number of items. If there is time, add what students had learned onto the chart. Encourage them to explain in their own words as to what those types of engineers do. What does engineering look like from the perspective of a student the age of your students? 3-14-13 Prepare for viewing the video by asking, “Think about what engineering might be like for you or another child. What is this student doing that is the same as an engineer? What is this student doing that is different from an engineer?” Students may not know what types of engineers there are, or what they do. Collect and use pictures of examples of engineering from local landmarks. Examples could include, the Glass Museum, the Narrows Bridge, the Space Needle, etc. Be sure to review pictures with students so that they know what the pictures are. There may be more than one correct match. Encourage discussion around why different table groups may have gotten different matches. Show video: http://teachscience4all.wordpress.com/2012/03/27/audrisrube-goldberg-video Explain Have students discuss what engineering is from a child’s perspective. Compare ideas during this discussion to the public record created earlier. How have students’ ideas changed. How do engineers influence technology? Possible Responses about ways that children are engineers: Legos, Forts, Blankets, Treehouse Elaborate Use different versions of an object (phone, pencil, etc.) Have students look at their object from Lesson 1 “mystery bags” and Ask: How do you think engineering played a role in the design of your piece of technology? Look at the DETAILS within its design to help you decide. What PROBLEM(S) did each detail solve? What mistakes, flaws, or problems might have come up that needed to be considered in its DESIGN? What types of engineers played a role in the design or production of this piece of technology? How did they play a role? Think of different versions of your object. How has this object evolved or changed? What problems or challenges did the changes address? What do you think engineers had to consider when RE-DESIGNING the object? 3-14-13 Document on chart paper to keep as a public record for the classroom. Wrap-up/Exit Card Evaluate On a piece of paper or index card have students respond to a question(s) relating to engineering. Examples: 1. Choose an item from the classroom that you think was designed by an engineer. 2. What problem do you think this item solved? 3. What kinds of engineers may have helped design this item. 4. What is one kind of engineering that you would you like to do? Explain why this kind of engineering is interesting to you. 3-14-13 Consider student responses when planning for lesson 3.