Chapter 12 Marriage and Alternative Family Arrangements Chapter Outline The Nature of Family Life Defining Marriage The Transformation of the Family Family Diversity The Future: Bright or Dismal? Changes in the American Family Since 1970 The marriage rate has fallen more than 40%. When men and women marry today they are on average 4 years older than in 1970. The number of single-parent households has more than doubled. The proportion of those who have not married by age 35 has tripled for both men and women. Changes in the American Family Since 1970 Women are nearly twice as likely to be divorced as in 1970. The divorce rate has increased by nearly 40%. Unmarried-couple households have increased nearly fivefold. Half of all children are expected to spend some part of their childhood in a single-parent home. Functions of the Family Patterning reproduction Organizing production and consumption Socializing children Providing care and protection Providing social status Question Most of the important decisions in the life of the family should be made by the man of the house. A. Strongly agree B. Agree somewhat C. Unsure D. Disagree somewhat E. Strongly disagree Family Structures The nuclear family is the most basic family form and is made up of a married couple and their biological or adopted children. The nuclear family is found in all societies, and it is from this form that all other (composite) family forms are derived. Family Structures Polygamous families are nuclear families linked together by multiple marriage bonds, with one central married to several spouses. The family is polygynous when the central person is male and the multiple spouses are female. The family is polyandrous when the central person is female and the multiple spouses are male. Family Structures In extended families, along with married parents and their offspring, there may be the parents’ parents, siblings of the parents, the siblings’ spouses and children, and in-laws. All the members of the extended family live in one house or in homes close to one another, forming one cooperative unit. Question A(n) ________ family is made up of a married couple and their children. A. patriarchal B. nuclear C. extended D. matrilineal Answer: B A nuclear family is made up of a married couple and their children. Question Dwayne and Katrina are a married couple. They have two children and live with Katrina's brother's family. This is an example of what type of family? A. extended B. polygamous C. nuclear D. blended Answer: A Dwayne and Katrina have an extended family. Marriage Marriage, an institution found in all societies, is the socially recognized, legitimized, and supported union of individuals of opposite sexes. Choosing a Marriage Partner Rules of endogamy Limit the social categories from within which one can choose a marriage partner. Rules of exogamy Require an individual to marry someone outside his or her culturally defined group. Marriage How marriage differs from other unions: Takes place in a public manner. Includes sexual intercourse as an explicit element of the relationship. Provides the essential condition for legitimizing offspring. Is intended to be a stable and enduring relationship. Question The government should recognize homosexual marriages under the law with the same privileges as heterosexual marriages. A. Strongly agree B. Agree somewhat C. Unsure D. Disagree somewhat E. Strongly disagree Five Dimensions of Romantic Love 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Idealization of the loved one. The notion of a one and only. Love at first sight. Love winning out over all. An indulgence of personal emotions. Nuclear Family: Characteristics Child-centered family. Marriage based on romantic love. Increased equality for women. Decreased links with extended families or kinship networks. Increased geographical and social mobility. Clear separation between work and leisure. The Transformation of the Family Most scholars agree that the Industrial Revolution had a strong impact on the family. 1. Industrialism demands that workers be geographically mobile so that a workforce is available wherever new industries are built. 2. Industrialism requires a certain degree of social mobility. 3. The modern nuclear family allows for inheritance and descent through both sides of the family. The Nuclear Family in the 20th Century Rested on: 1. The child-Centered family 2. Companionate marriage 3. Increased equality for women 4. Decreased links with extended families or kinship networks 5. Neolocal residence and increased geographical mobility 6. Increased social mobility 7. Clear separation between work and leisure. Decline of the Traditional Family Between 1990 and 2000, percentage of married couples with children fell from 26% to 24%. Proportion of families headed by married couples fell from 76% in 1990 to 72% in 2000. Since the 1950s, traditional families have become increasingly rare. Number of Marriages, in Millions, 1960–2004 Number of Marriages per 1,000 Unmarried Women, 15 and Older Cohabitation Increased dramatically in the past 20 years and is having a significant impact on the family. In 1988, fewer than one in five married Americans said they lived with their spouse before marriage. % of High School Seniors Who Thought It Was a Good Idea to Live Together before Getting Married Family Violence 30% of adults who were abused as children are abusive to their own children. 22% of American women report having been physically abused by their spouses or companions. 1 in 5 of these women report that the abuse took place in the previous year. Annual Divorce Rate per 1,000 Population, 1970–2003 Divorce Factors: Education The likelihood of a first marriage ending in divorce is 60% for people with some college education. Those who have a college degree have nearly a 40% chance of divorce and are the least divorce-prone. Approximately 53% of women who have gone on to graduate school will divorce. Question The strength of the American family is declining. A. Strongly agree B. Agree somewhat C. Unsure D. Disagree somewhat E. Strongly disagree Marriage and Divorce Quiz 1. 2. One of the reasons there is more divorce today than in the past is because people live longer and there is more time to get divorced. False. Even though people live longer, they also marry later than in the past. Living together before marriage increases your chance of divorce. True. Marriage and Divorce Quiz 3. 4. An unmarried woman is more likely to experienced domestic violence than a married woman. True. Now that people are more likely to divorce, those that stay married are happier than when people stayed married because of the stigma against divorce. False. Studies show that the general level of marital satisfaction has not increased. Marriage and Divorce Quiz 5. 6. Second marriages are more successful than first marriages because people learn from their mistakes. False. The divorce rate for second marriages is higher than for first marriages. If your parents divorced your chances of divorcing are increased. True. Marriage and Divorce Quiz 7. 8. Women are more likely than men to be the ones who initiate a divorce. • True. Teenage marriages are fairly successful if they can get through the first year. False. Marrying in your teens increase the likelihood of divorce two to three times over that of couples in their twenties and older. Remarriage and Stepfamilies The United States has the highest incidence of stepfamilies in the world. 17% of married couple households involve a stepparent. 54% of divorced women and 62% of men divorced men remarry within five years. Reluctant to Marry: The Men Who Want to Stay Single Compared to men who marry earlier these men are more likely to: Worry about the risks of divorce. Not want children. Believe women cannot be trusted to tell the truth about past relationships. Think single men have better sex lives than married men. Believe marriage will reduce their personal freedom. The Growing Single Population In 2000, 61.5% of American men and nearly 58% of American women over the age of 18 were married. In 1970, only 10.5% of the women and 19.1% of the men between the ages of 25 and 39 had never been married. In 2003, 40.3% of women and 54.6% of men that age had never been married. Single-Parent Families In 1960, nearly 1/3 of all single mothers with children under 18 were widows. In the 1970s, most single mothers were divorced or separated. By 1980, only 11% of single mothers were widowed and two-thirds were divorced or separated. By 2000, 40% of single mothers had never been married. % of Children under Age 18 Living with a Single Parent % Of Births to Unmarried Women Iceland 64% Sweden Norway Denmark France United Kingdom United States 54% 49% 45% 40% 38% 33% Canada 28% German 14% Italy 9% Japan 1% Gay and Lesbian Couples 5% of gay and 22% of lesbian families include children. Many of these children were part of a motherfather family and continued to live with a parent who transitioned to same-sex relationships. 17% of gays and 29% of lesbians had previously been in a heterosexual marriage. Quick Quiz 1. Which of the following is a function of the family? A. Socialization of children. B. Regulation of sexual behavior. C. Providing care and protection. D. All of these choices are correct. Answer: D The following are all functions of the family: Socialization of children. Regulation of sexual behavior. Providing care and protection. 2. Parents who expect their children to marry someone of the same religion, ethnic group and social class are following the rules of: A. endogamy. B. exogamy. C. polygamy. D. monogamy. Answer: A Parents who expect their children to marry someone of the same religion, ethnic group and social class are following the rules of: endogamy. 3. Which of the following is not a characteristic of the nuclear family as it evolved in early 20th century industrial society? A. Clear separation between work and leisure. B. Increased equality for women. C. Increased links with extended families. D. Families are more child-centered. Answer: C Increased links with extended families is not a characteristic of the nuclear family as it evolved in early 20th century industrial society. 4. Cohabitation is more common among: A. those with a college education. B. members of the middle and upper classes. C. those who are less religious. D. all of these choices are correct. Answer: C Cohabitation is more common among those who are less religious. 5. Which of the following is not a feature of marriage in all societies? A. A public, usually formal aspect. B. Sexual intercourse as an explicit element of the relationship. C. Romantic love as an important characteristic of the relationship. D. The intention that it should be a stable and enduring relationship. Answer: C Romantic love is not a feature of marriage in all societies.