Broad definition: “to make world-wide in
scope or application”.
1990s much narrower definition: the rise
of market capitalism around the world.
“the growing economic
interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and
variety of cross-border transactions in
goods and services and of international
capital flows, and also through the more
rapid and widespread diffusion of
“the growing interdependence of
countries resulting from the increasing
integration of trade, finance, people
and ideas in one global marketplace”.
“the process by which events,
activities and decisions in one part of the
world can have significant
consequences for communities in distant
parts of the world”.
is taking place because of growth in
international trade
 transnational corporations (TNCs)
 international economic agreements
 trading blocs
 global movements of capital
Advances in technology have reduced
the costs of transport, communication
and information transfer (enabling
Since the 1980s and 1990s governments
have increasingly replaced protectionist
trading policies with free trade policies.
World Bank
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Hong Kong
South Korea
small wealthy elites
most of the countries in Africa
the countries of the former Soviet Union
larger poorer sections of populations
“ Improvements in transport technology
have the effect of “moving” places
towards one another.
If we are now “all in each other´s
backyard”, then it is because some people
have never left their own backyard just as
much as it is because other people have
the wealth and means to visit someone
else´s “backyard”.
In other words many people in the world will
spend their lives in “local space”.
Culture can be defined as “the
framework of shared meanings which
people who belong to the same
community (or group or nation) use to
help them interpret and make sense of
the world”.
Culture defines the lifestyle of people,
and also their values and beliefs.
etcetera (cultural traits)
The speed with which cultural influences
move from place to place has never
been more rapid than it is today.
Year 800: The Serbian general
Charlemagne conquered vast areas of
Europe (Christianity and Latin language).
 1100s and 1200s : Christian and Islamic
cultural influences spread further.
 1400s to 1800s: Chinese influence
throughout South-East Asia.
 trading links
 investments in new areas
 expansion of production of raw materials
 conquest and colonisation
 migration of colonists to new colonies
Traders and colonists exported the
culture of their home societies.
legal systems
the Indonesian influence on Irian Jaya
 the Chinese influence on Tibet
 and until 1989, the Russian influence in
Eastern Europe
An idea develops or exists in a source area
and then spreads into other areas while
remaining strong at the source.
Example: Islam
The Arabian Peninsula of the Middle East 
through North Africa, the rest of the Middle
East, East Africa and parts of South-East Asia
People who have adopted a new idea
or belief carry it to a new destination.
Example: Christianity from Israel 
Europe and then on to Africa, Asia and
South America.
The further an idea has to travel, the less
likely it is to be adopted in new areas.
It is taken on board in its entirety.
It is modified in some way, usually so it
can be accommodated within their
traditional belief system.
Example: When Buddhism spread from
India to Myanmar, Buddha was made
the supreme spirit nat.
Salmon wraps at Bekkestua McDonalds.
Norwegian McDonald's to
serve salmon wraps
Thu Jun 14, 2007 9:29am
OSLO, June 14 (Reuters) - McDonald's restaurants in Norway will launch
a new fresh salmon wrap in August to satisfy increasing demand from
consumers for healthy food, company officials said on Thursday.The
Nordic nation is the world's biggest salmon exporter."It's local, it's
Norwegian, and something we are proud to be launching, and it fits into
the trend that people want to eat more healthily," said Margaret
Brusletto, spokeswoman for McDonald's (MCD.N: Quote, Profile,
Research, Stock Buzz) Norwegian subsidiary.
Because of the adaptability of cultures,
globalization has not resulted in all
places becoming the same, although
there is certainly greater mixing (or
hybridisation) of cultures.
Cultural diffusion is not a new process,
and although the pace of cultural
change is accelerating, the impact is
uneven across the world – some places
are more accepting of global cultural
changes while others are more resistant.