Broad definition: “to make world-wide in scope or application”. 1990s much narrower definition: the rise of market capitalism around the world. “the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology”. “the growing interdependence of countries resulting from the increasing integration of trade, finance, people and ideas in one global marketplace”. “the process by which events, activities and decisions in one part of the world can have significant consequences for communities in distant parts of the world”. is taking place because of growth in international trade transnational corporations (TNCs) international economic agreements trading blocs global movements of capital 1. Advances in technology have reduced the costs of transport, communication and information transfer (enabling TNCs). 2. Since the 1980s and 1990s governments have increasingly replaced protectionist trading policies with free trade policies. World Bank International Monetary Fund (IMF) World Trade Organization (WTO) Hong Kong South Korea Singapore small wealthy elites most of the countries in Africa the countries of the former Soviet Union larger poorer sections of populations “ Improvements in transport technology have the effect of “moving” places towards one another. If we are now “all in each other´s backyard”, then it is because some people have never left their own backyard just as much as it is because other people have the wealth and means to visit someone else´s “backyard”. In other words many people in the world will spend their lives in “local space”. Culture can be defined as “the framework of shared meanings which people who belong to the same community (or group or nation) use to help them interpret and make sense of the world”. Culture defines the lifestyle of people, and also their values and beliefs. language customs traditions thinking behaviour faith music clothing art technology food architecture dance etcetera (cultural traits) The speed with which cultural influences move from place to place has never been more rapid than it is today. Year 800: The Serbian general Charlemagne conquered vast areas of Europe (Christianity and Latin language). 1100s and 1200s : Christian and Islamic cultural influences spread further. 1400s to 1800s: Chinese influence throughout South-East Asia. traders trading links investments in new areas expansion of production of raw materials conquest and colonisation migration of colonists to new colonies Traders and colonists exported the culture of their home societies. religion language legal systems education Anomalies: the Indonesian influence on Irian Jaya the Chinese influence on Tibet and until 1989, the Russian influence in Eastern Europe An idea develops or exists in a source area and then spreads into other areas while remaining strong at the source. Example: Islam The Arabian Peninsula of the Middle East through North Africa, the rest of the Middle East, East Africa and parts of South-East Asia People who have adopted a new idea or belief carry it to a new destination. Example: Christianity from Israel Europe and then on to Africa, Asia and South America. The further an idea has to travel, the less likely it is to be adopted in new areas. It is taken on board in its entirety. It is modified in some way, usually so it can be accommodated within their traditional belief system. Example: When Buddhism spread from India to Myanmar, Buddha was made the supreme spirit nat. Salmon wraps at Bekkestua McDonalds. Norwegian McDonald's to serve salmon wraps Thu Jun 14, 2007 9:29am OSLO, June 14 (Reuters) - McDonald's restaurants in Norway will launch a new fresh salmon wrap in August to satisfy increasing demand from consumers for healthy food, company officials said on Thursday.The Nordic nation is the world's biggest salmon exporter."It's local, it's Norwegian, and something we are proud to be launching, and it fits into the trend that people want to eat more healthily," said Margaret Brusletto, spokeswoman for McDonald's (MCD.N: Quote, Profile, Research, Stock Buzz) Norwegian subsidiary. Because of the adaptability of cultures, globalization has not resulted in all places becoming the same, although there is certainly greater mixing (or hybridisation) of cultures. Cultural diffusion is not a new process, and although the pace of cultural change is accelerating, the impact is uneven across the world – some places are more accepting of global cultural changes while others are more resistant.