What is Weather.






Troposphere stratosphere




Greenhouse effect


Greenhouse gases

Temperature inversion


• Climate

• Ozone

• Insolation

• Wind chill factor

• Humidity

• Dew point

• fog

• Cloud

• Dew

• Frost

• Barometer

• Frost bite

• Beaufort scale



What is Weather.

Is the State of the atmosphere at a given Time and Place.

Includes types of clouds

Rain, snow etc.

– Precipitation

Storms even dust storms

Measure of temps pressure, wind speed, direction and amount of moisture in the air.

Study of the entire atmosphere.

Including the weather.


Also the study of how the atmosphere heats and cools

How clouds form and produce rain

What makes the wind blow.

Past and Present climates.

Composition of the atmosphere and

Atmosphere of other planets.

Tools of meteorology

Most useful

Many , instruments have been developed. i.e.. Thermometer

Lab experiments. Mathematical models of the atmosphere and use of computers and satellites.

Simple direct observation. Tells a lot. Cloudy-rainy cool: Clearwarmer and dry. Even humidity and pressure can be observed.


Certain clouds come with weather and others foretell rain.

What professions would benefit from weather forecasting???

People who look at the weather.

Farmers/Sailors and others dependent on weather become skilled at forecasting the weather.

Mackerel scales and mares tails make lofty ships carry low sails.

A cloud formation predicts the coming of a storm.

Red in the morning better take warning: red at night take delight.

Weather Models and Scales

Models and




Help Scientist accuratly predict the weather.

Relates the wind speed to its effects on land and sea. Pg478 blk text.

Wind Chill



The use of this chart can help convert the actual temperature outside to the temp the body would feel if exposed to the air and wind. Pg 479.

This adjusted temperature indicates the potential danger of frostbite in the outside air.

Frostbite is, literally, frozen body tissue

- usually skin but sometimes deeper and must be handled carefully to prevent permanent tissue damage or loss. Here is an example of frost bit.

There are four degrees of frostbite.

This is and example of fourth degree frost bite where only amputation of the affected area will save the patient.

The danger of frostbite is real and needs attention to keep people safe.

Beaufort scale self cast


Purpose : Learn to use a Meteorological scale to help forecast the weather.

CB Assignment:

Research a weather related scale then in 150 words min, explain how it works. Present your findings in class. 20 min.

Ex, http://legacywww.swpc.noaa.gov/NOA


In Addition : Honors only..

Create a scale of your own using numbers, descriptions and pictures for a weather topic. You can cut out pics .

Title it at the top in your comp book


______scale of ___________.

Composition of atmosphere


Mixture. Oxygen, Nitrogen make up 99%of dry air volume.

1% argon carbon dioxide.

Others … He, H, neon, ozone and krypton.

This air thins out quickly as you increase altitude.

Air and


Air always contains some water vapor. Humidity.





Is a form of oxygen gas. A molecule of ozone contains three oxygen atoms. A molecule of oxygen contains only two oxygen atoms.

Ozone forms when ultraviolet light rays from the sun act on the oxygen in the upper most part of the atmosphere about 10 to 50 km up.

It absorbs 99% of the harmful ultraviolet rays.

If the atmosphere has less ozone, more ultraviolet rays reach Earth’s surface, causing more sunburns, skin cancer and plant damage.

Chlorofluorocarbons or (cfc) Combo of chlorine, fluorine, and carbon. Used in coolants and foam products

CFCs break down ozone.


 http://www.youtube.co

m/watch?NR=1&featu re=endscreen&v=AU0 eNa4GrgU

Ozone measurements since 1970 show a hole in this protective layer of gas centered over Antarctica.

Structure of the Earths Atmosphere.



 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CerJbZ-dm0&feature=related

Diagram pg #523 Study this diagram closely.


Temperature cools with elevation all earths clouds and either occurs here. 0-18 km



Temp rises with elevation.

Contains ozone layer. Little or no weather here. 18-50km

Temp cools with elevation. Air molecules become ionized. 50-



Temp rises with elevation meteors and northern lights happen here. 80-500km

Special layer of the atmosphere occurs from 65-500km up.


Northern lights.

Ions are formed when uv light from the sun knock electrons off of oxygen atoms.

These layers reflect radio waves back to earth

Each layer can reflect a different frequency.

Affected by solar events.

Are caused by solar events . The eruptions of solar energy interact with

Earth’s magnetic fields at the poles.

Together with the air particles thy form auroras.

Northern Lights.

Layers of the atmosphere activity.


?v=Hi3ERes0h84&feature=rel ated

Green house effect.

Green house gasses.

Green House Effect

Earth surface radiates inferred heat waves. These waves are reflected back by water vapor and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

In a green house the glass roof acts like the carbon dioxide and water vapor in the air. It lets the light in to heat up the soil but does not let the inferred waves out.

Gasses that thicken the atmosphere.

Water vapor