Unit 1: Three Worlds Meet Chapter 3: The English Establish 13 Colonies Section 1: Early Colonies Have Mixed Success Section 2: New England Colonies The year is 1607… You have just sailed across the ocean and arrived in a strange land. Your family has traveled to the eastern coast of North America in search of freedom and prosperity. Your first task in the new land is to decide what you need to do to survive. Look at pages 82 and 83 in your book Pages 82 and 83: What dangers would you face as a settler? What would you need to survive in the wilderness? Food, clothing, shelter, protection from wild animals and from enemies This is a fort, with an armed force and high fences. What reasons would you have for building a fort? Security needs of the settlers: protection, supplies, weapons, tools, defense of your family and land against both Native Americans and hostile European nations What kind of settlement would you build? Consider the natural resources you can use to construct, and repair your settlement, how you plan to use the surrounding land, and consider the climate of the area where you’ll live In the Americas: what we later end up with: New England Middle Colonies Southern Colonies And… when you look at the colonies in any history book, that’s how they get divided up New England… the first European settlers in England duh this area were from ______________ These colonies were to be set up as a source of raw materials and provide a place for England to export goods (and then make money). England could then use this wealth to increase it’s gold supply. This is sometimes called Mercantilism: when a government controls trade and tries to make money off its colonies. New England Ends up being a fishing, trade, and ship building section of the country Two of England's first colonies: failed Roanoke Sagadahoc •Sir Walter Raleigh was given permission to start a colony at Roanoke. •Began up in Maine. •He named this colony (England’s first colony) “Virginia” after Queen Elizabeth II who was not married, so she was called “The Virgin Queen.” •This colony failed – you’ll read about it today. •Not as famous as Roanoke, but also important. •And, that’s also in your reading today Sir Walter Raleigh lost a lot of money and the British wanted figure out a better way to start and run a colony They came up with the idea that groups of people investing would be better than individuals. Then, if the did well, many people could profit. If they did poorly, they would all share in the losses. These group companies were called “joint stock companies” New England was settled mainly by people looking for religious freedom Quakers / Methodists / Puritans / etc… (Protestant groups) Official Denominational Web Sites Adventists Anabaptist Anglican / Episcopalian Baptist Calvinist Charismatic Congregational Lutheran Methodist / Wesleyan Non-denominational Pentecostal Presbyterian Quakerism Reformed Restoration movement Unitarian Jamestown was one of these places Jamestown is commonly regarded as the first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States, following many earlier failed attempts. The English colonists found life in Jamestown harder than they had expected. The site they chose to live on was swampy/marshy and didn’t have safe drinking water. The settlers didn’t know how to provide for themselves and many even refused to do any work – they thought they’d get rich from gold. Many settlers died from starvation and disease. The Powhatan Indians contributed to the survival of the Jamestown settlers in several ways. • The Powhatan people and the English settlers (led by Captain John Smith) at Jamestown established trading relationships and for a while had positive interactions. • The Powhatans traded food, furs, and leather with the English in exchange for tools, pots, guns, and other goods. • Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan, believed the English and American Indians (First Americans) could live in harmony and began a friendship with the colonists that helped them survive. • The Powhatans introduced new crops to the English, including corn and tobacco. But… later… there were problems The Powhatan people realized the English settlement would continue to grow. The Powhatans saw the colonists as invaders that would take over their land. Jamestown even had some of the first “indentured servants” A person who’d get a free trip to America, but then had to work for 4-7 years for the person who paid for their trip. Many of these indentured servants had been given a choice back in England: Go to America or go to jail They’d work 4-7 years for someone. They’d get food, clothing, and shelter while under contract. They’d get some land when their time was up. Owning land meant they could move up that social ladder. Mistress Forrest Excavation at Jamestown has unearthed the burial of one of the New World's first English female colonists and, as such, one of the earliest women settlers in the New World. The remains are thought to be those of Mistress Forrest, who came to Jamestown in 1608 with her husband and her maid, Anne Burras, who later bore Jamestown's first child. The woman was buried within the walls of James Fort, where the immigrants lived. She was a diminutive 4'8" tall and about 35 years old when she died with only five teeth in her mouth; the cause of her death is unknown. A single shroud pin was the only artifact in her grave. One thing that happened was the Jamestown colonists started getting angry with Virginia’s governor The Jamestown Company decided to elect representatives (or “burgesses”) who would meet once a year to discuss issues. This group became known as the “House of Burgesses” This was the first time in America there was any form of government where representatives were elected by the people. Plymouth is another of these places The most famous of these religious groups was from here : the Puritans (Plymouth Colony / The Mayflower / The Pilgrims) So many Puritans left England for the Americas, in England it’s sometimes even called “the great migration” Plymouth Rock But before they agreed to settle at where they landed… “The Mayflower Compact” The Mayflower set sail from Plymouth England in the Fall of 1620 and arrived off the coast of what is now Massachusetts. The Mayflower Compact was signed in November, 1620 and contained the basic ideals of American democracy as we know it today. It is estimated that today there may be as many as 25 million descendants of this little band of Pilgrims that came aboard the Mayflower to the North American shores (Established the idea of self-government and majority rule for the first time in the Americas) Plymouth Plantation today: a re-creation of what was originally there Today's essential question: How is American life influenced by economic forces? What’s one positive economic result of Pilgrims coming to America, and what might be one negative factor they had to deal with.