Geography Assessment Target Cards Answer Key Diaspora Definition: The movement of people from their original homeland to another area, usually against their will. The people keep close ties with their home culture. Example: Because of persecution during the 1930s and 40s, millions of Jewish people left their European homelands to settle in the United States. They kept close ties with their cultural heritage. Immigration Definition: People moving into a new country to settle there. Example: In 2009, more than 1.2 million people moved to the United States to live there. Emigration Definition: Leaving your country to live somewhere else. Push factors like wars and famines and pull factors like better jobs and education encourage people to leave. Example: In 2009, about 500,000 people left China to settle in other countries. Many are seeking better educational opportunities in other countries. Culture Definition: A people’s way of life. It is made up of their values, beliefs, customs, art, and stories. Example: In Asia, female friends may hold hands as they walk down the street. In the United States, female friends do not usually do this. Cultural Diffusion Definition: The ideas and things one culture borrows from another. Example: Sushi originated in Japan and is now popular in the United States. Cultural Assimilation Definition: A person’s or group’s native culture starts to look like a new culture. Example: As Polish emigrants settled in the United States in the 20th century, they began to speak English, eat American foods, and consider themselves Americans instead of Poles. Urban Definition: An area with a high population density such as a city. Example: About 35 million people live in and around Tokyo, Japan, the world’s largest city. Rural Definition: An area located outside cities and towns. Example: In the United States, 82 percent of the people live in urban areas while the rest live in these areas. Population Trends Example: For the first time in human history, more people live in urban rather than rural areas. Urban areas are expected to continue to continue to have population increases. Example: In US history, people moved west from the East Coast. Since 1900, Americans moved from rural to urban areas. Nation Definition: Political unit made of people sharing a common territory. Example: The United States, Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico are examples. State Definition: Part of a nation that has their own government. Example: In the United States, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and West Virginia are examples of this. Sustainability Definition: People using natural resources carefully so the resource is not used up or damaged. Example: To practice this, people use energy sources like the sun and wind instead of fossil fuels which are in limited supply. Natural Resources Materials that are found in an environment such as land, minerals, and forests. Technology and the Environment Definition: Human’s use of machines and tools affects the environment. Human Changes to the Environment Example: When people build houses on what was farmland, it changes the ecosystem. Flooding may occur more easily and wildlife can lose habitat. Example: In West Virginia, mountaintop removal mining uses explosives to blast off mountain tops to mine coal. The fill is then dumped back on the ridge and compacted using heavy equipment. Example: As more development occurs, communities work to create green spaces and restore wetlands to help conserve wildlife habitats. Place Definition: The physical and human features of an area. Physical features are things like mountains, beaches, or trees. Human features are how the land is used (farming or city) and local culture. Example: Chicago is a large city with skyscrapers and people from many different cultures. Region Definition: An area of land with common features. The features may be natural like climate and landscape or human features like culture. Example: The Middle East and the American South are examples of this. Cultural Diversity Definition: Many cultures within a society. Example: African Americans, Greek Americans, and Italian Americans are some of the many groups living in the United States. Natural Diversity (Biodiversity) Global Positioning System (GPS) Definition: The variety of plants and animals that live in a certain area. Example: The Amazon rain forest contains 10 million different species of animals, plants, and insects. A system of satellites, computers, and receivers that locates exact latitude and longitude. It is a geospatial technology. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) A software program that shows GPS and other geospatial data like topographical and area maps. For example, it could be used to track drought affected areas. Latitude Lines Definition: Imaginary lines on a map that show how far north or south something is from the equator. “Latitude is like a ladder.” Example: Longitude Lines Definition: Imaginary lines on a map that show how far east or west something is from the Prime Meridian. Example: Prime Meridian Equator Imaginary line at zero degrees longitude, divides the earth in half creating the Eastern and Western hemispheres Imaginary line at zero degrees latitude, divides the earth in half (equal distance from the North and South Poles) creating the Northern and Southern hemispheres.