Innovative Management for a Changing World • Describe the 4 management functions and the type of management activity associated with each. • Explain the difference between efficiency and effectiveness and their importance for organizational performance. • Describe conceptual, human, and technical skills and their relevance for managers. What Do Managers Do? Management The attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources The Four Management Functions Planning – identifying goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them The Four Management Functions Organizing – assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, delegating authority, and allocating resources across the organization The Four Management Functions Leading – using influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals The Four Management Functions Controlling – monitoring employees’ activities, determining whether the organization is on target toward its goals, and making corrections as necessary Organizational Performance Organization – a social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured Organizational Performance Effectiveness – the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal or succeeds at accomplishing what it tries to do Organizational Performance Efficiency – the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal Management Skills Conceptual Skill – the cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole system and the relationships among its parts Management Skills Human Skill – the ability to work through other people and to work effectively as a group member. Management Skills Technical Skill – the understanding of and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks.