Europe since WWII ppt

Europe Since WWII
Unit 13– the Last one!!!!
The Allies WIN!!!!!
Big three meet at Yalta– 1945– discuss
free elections –Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill
Potsdam Conference– late 1945 Truman
replaces Roosevelt. Stalin refuses free
Churchill– “Iron Curtain”
Truman Doctrine– Containment
Marshall Plan– rebuild Europe– Stalin
refuses aid!!!
Common Market--- European
Economic Community (EEC)
Schulman Plan– international control
of coal and steel
Comecon--- Soviet counterpart to
Common Market
Post WWII---- Decolonization of Africa
and Asia
However—France = neocolonization
Algeria– Pres Charles DeGaulle
extends European domination in
some part of Africa for economic
4th Republic France-1945-58
Democratic but politically unstable (27
Universal suffrage
Weak president- powerful legislature
Many political parties (coalition governmts)
failure to gracefully leave Indo-China
Botched the Suez War
Failed to settle Algerian Crisis
5th Republic France-1958-present
Powerful president-Charles De Gaulle
Weak cabinet—weak legislature
Separation of powers
DeGaulle’s achievements
Settle Algerian Crisis
Made France a nuclear power
Sustained general prosperity
Maintained stable democratic government
Made France more politically independent
BUT– late 60’s student unrest and social
changes challenged him– Resigned 1968
and died of heart attack in 1970
Atlee and Labour Party:1945-51
Limited Socialist program (modern welfare
state) National Insurance Act and Health
Service Act
Nationalized coal mines, public utilities,
steel industry, Bank of England, RRs,
motor transportation and aviation
Social Insurance legislation: cradle to
grave security
Socialized medicine- free national health
Britain is in big debt
Beginning of the end of the Empire: India1947; Palestine- 1948; Kenya- Mau- Mau
uprising 1955
Churchill returns- 1951-55 but never tries
to destroy “welfare state” created by Atlee
Federated Republic of Germany
Created I 1949- capital Bonn
Army limited to 12 divisions (275,000)
Konrad Adenauer- 1st president a Christian
Coalition of moderates and conservatives
Pro-western foreign policy
German economic miracle
Italy-- post WWII
Gasperi- was prime minister from 19481953
Coalition governments– short and
Soviet Union & Eastern Block 1945
Stalin wins “Great Patriotic War”
Reinstates Stalinism
Cold War- exchanges enemy “Hitler” with
Repress Soviet citizens outside country
During WWII– 2 million to work camps
Stalin Paranoia Deepens
Denounces artists and entertainers
(including Sergei Eisenstein)
Repress freedom of speech and
Savage attack on Soviet Jews
Export Stalinism
To Eastern Block countries-- one
party rule, totalitarianism, puppet
Only Yugoslavia under Tito resists
Soviet economic exploitation
Stalin purges dissident members of
the “Communist Party” to get rid of
“Tito” like members
Reformers – look for innovations in Soviet
DESTALINAIZATION– movement in Soviet
Union to distant from Stalin oppressive
policies in many areas.
Meanwhile– “Politburo politics” Who would
succeed Stalin????
Nikita Kruschev
Emerged as leader in 1955
Manintain monopoly on political power but
shook it up with “new blood”
Economic policy changed to respond to
need of people (more consumer goods)
Relaxed control over workers
Authors- Pasternak-Dr. Zhivago
Solzhenitsen- Day in the Life of Ivan
Foreign Policy-Peaceful Coexistence
Effort toward “super powers” and
pressure on 3rd world
Destalinization gave hope to Eastern
Anti- soviet uprisings in 1956– Poland
and Hungary (Pres Nagy)– Soviets
quickly put down!!!
Reasons for Kruschev Failure
Foreign policy problems- U2, Berlin
Wall, Cuban Missile Crisis,
Communist China
Angered Stalin supporters( most in
Central Committee)
Forced to resign in 1964 (only Soviet
leader who did not die in office)
Breshnev and Kosygin- 1964
Breshnev- head of Communist Party( this
is where the power really exists)
Kosygin- President Politburo(was normally
jointly given to head of Party) – K will be
forced out by 1968 and B will hold both
Re-stalinization– heavy industry, arms
build up, strong show to the west and
commitment to peaceful coexistence.
Social History- Post WWII
“Big Science”- nuclear, DNA Sputnik,
space exploration, physics
1942- Oppenheimer- Los Alamos- atomic
bomb (Rutherford split the atom in 1919)
CERN- European Council of Nuclear
Research– trying to stop the “brain drain”
to USA in 50’s and 60’s
Europe Pools Science resources
Joint projects-- France and England the
Concorde 1970’s - and the Chunnel1990’s
Class struggle– Class mobility
Middle class loses its propertied
advantage- included more professions,
less self- employed– more middle
Movement toward Socialism
Adopted social programs after US (EX.
social security & workman’s Comp)
Results in rise of Affluence
Gadget revolution-consumerism
Women and the Family
Women became more equal and
independent; less confined & stereotyped
Married earlier– children quickly
“Baby Boom” 1945-1964
Birthrate declines by 1968 ---2.5, not 3.0.
Women’s movement of the 1960 differs
from women’s movement of early 1900’s=
political versus economic
Why smaller family size???
Birth control
Small families meant emancipation
Rising women’s employment directly
related to declining birthrate
Divorce Rate Rises
Women educated– can leave and support
Interfered with career
Reflected change in “defined” role of both
Early marriage- raise children– move on–
(remarriages increase)
Divorce rate/1980-US-1 in 4;Sweden-1 in2