Kingdom Plantae


Kingdom Plantae

Biology 11

Kingdom Plantae




Cell walls made of cellulose

Store food in the form of starch

Have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll

Most are terrestrial, some are aquatic


(xylem and phloem)

Leaves, roots, stems

Prepare a table to compare

Nonvascular and Vascular

Non-vascular Vascular



No vessels

No roots

No stems

No leaves

Ex: Mosses and liverworts


Have vessels to transport food and water

They have roots, stems and leaves

Ex: grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes

Xylem: transports water

Phloem: transports food & nutrients

Vascular Plants can be sub-divided into Seedless vs Seed Plants

Seedless plants ( e.g.

, ferns) have a vascular system but reproduce using spores.

Seed Plants can be further subdivided into

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Type of protection for seed

Type of leaves

Growing season

Type of pollination


Seed Plants


Cone-bearing plants

“naked seeds” = seeds that are not enclosed.

needle-like leaves usually stay green year round wind pollinated

Examples: pine trees & other evergreens

Seed Plants


Flowering plants

Seeds are enclosed, usually in a fruit

Have finite growing seasons

Most are pollinated by birds & bees

The most successful group of plants

Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks

Divided into two main groups:

Monocots & Dicots

Angiosperms can be further subdivided into Monocots and


Monocot Dicot

Number of


Type of leaf veins

Type of root

Arrangement of vessels



1 seed leaf (cotyledon)

 parallel veins on leaves

3 part symmetry for flowers

 fibrous roots

Vascular tissue scattered

Example: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat


2 seed leaves


 net veins on leaves

 flowers have 4-5 parts

 taproots

Vascular tissue arranged in a ring

Examples: trees and ornamental flowers

Success of Angiosperms

Transport gametes over great distances.

Efficient dispersal via fruit.

Tough, water resistant leaves for survival in hostile environments.


Co-evolution between flowers and pollinators.

Birds are attracted to red flowers.

Bees can see colors that humans cannot.

Moth-pollinated flowers are white and bloom at night.

Many insects are attracted to odors. One species smells like rotting meat and is pollinated by flies.

Flowers are often shaped so that non-pollinators cannot reach nectar or pollen. For example, hummingbird-pollinated flowers are long, and shaped like the bill of a hummingbird.

Wind-pollinated flowers are small, have no petals and little color and do not produce nectar.

Problems living in a terrestrial ecosystem

Support - in water, the plant is held up.

On land, a support system is required.

Getting Water and Nutrients

Aquatic plants are surrounded by water and nutrients so most cells can just absorb them the environment. Terrestrial plants require a system for collecting and transporting water.

Plants developed root systems that can collect and transport water. Some plants have shallow roots which spread out to collect water.

Water carrying minerals from the roots can travel to all parts of the plant and food made in the leaves can travel to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant.

Drying Out

Leaves are covered by a waterproof outer layer called the cuticle.

Openings in the leaves called stomata allow passage of gases for photosynthesis but can be closed when it is too warm.

Gymnosperms have very narrow leaves to minimize water loss.

Spreading Gametes

Spores – tiny reproductive cells are carried long distance by the wind

Seeds :

– The embryo inside the seed is surrounded by a tough, drought-resistant, protective seed coat.

Food packaged in the seed provides energy for the young plant until it can grow above the soil and begin photosynthesizing.

– Adaptations of seeds help in their dispersal.

Some seeds are carried by wind, stick to the fur of animals or are eaten.

Today’s Work


Complete the Monocot/Dicot colouring with the large lily on the back