Cell walls made of cellulose
Store food in the form of starch
Have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll
Most are terrestrial, some are aquatic
(xylem and phloem)
Leaves, roots, stems
Prepare a table to compare
Nonvascular and Vascular
Ex: Mosses and liverworts
Have vessels to transport food and water
They have roots, stems and leaves
Ex: grass, corn, trees, flowers, bushes
Xylem: transports water
Phloem: transports food & nutrients
Vascular Plants can be sub-divided into Seedless vs Seed Plants
Seedless plants ( e.g.
, ferns) have a vascular system but reproduce using spores.
Seed Plants can be further subdivided into
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms
Type of protection for seed
Type of leaves
Type of pollination
“naked seeds” = seeds that are not enclosed.
needle-like leaves usually stay green year round wind pollinated
Examples: pine trees & other evergreens
Seeds are enclosed, usually in a fruit
Have finite growing seasons
Most are pollinated by birds & bees
The most successful group of plants
Examples: grasses, tulips, oaks
Divided into two main groups:
Monocots & Dicots
Angiosperms can be further subdivided into Monocots and
Type of leaf veins
Type of root
Arrangement of vessels
1 seed leaf (cotyledon)
parallel veins on leaves
3 part symmetry for flowers
Vascular tissue scattered
Example: lilies, onions, corn, grasses, wheat
2 seed leaves
net veins on leaves
flowers have 4-5 parts
Vascular tissue arranged in a ring
Examples: trees and ornamental flowers
Transport gametes over great distances.
Efficient dispersal via fruit.
Tough, water resistant leaves for survival in hostile environments.
Co-evolution between flowers and pollinators.
Birds are attracted to red flowers.
Bees can see colors that humans cannot.
Moth-pollinated flowers are white and bloom at night.
Many insects are attracted to odors. One species smells like rotting meat and is pollinated by flies.
Flowers are often shaped so that non-pollinators cannot reach nectar or pollen. For example, hummingbird-pollinated flowers are long, and shaped like the bill of a hummingbird.
Wind-pollinated flowers are small, have no petals and little color and do not produce nectar.
Problems living in a terrestrial ecosystem
Support - in water, the plant is held up.
On land, a support system is required.
Aquatic plants are surrounded by water and nutrients so most cells can just absorb them the environment. Terrestrial plants require a system for collecting and transporting water.
Plants developed root systems that can collect and transport water. Some plants have shallow roots which spread out to collect water.
Water carrying minerals from the roots can travel to all parts of the plant and food made in the leaves can travel to non-photosynthetic parts of the plant.
Leaves are covered by a waterproof outer layer called the cuticle.
Openings in the leaves called stomata allow passage of gases for photosynthesis but can be closed when it is too warm.
Gymnosperms have very narrow leaves to minimize water loss.
Spores – tiny reproductive cells are carried long distance by the wind
– The embryo inside the seed is surrounded by a tough, drought-resistant, protective seed coat.
Food packaged in the seed provides energy for the young plant until it can grow above the soil and begin photosynthesizing.
– Adaptations of seeds help in their dispersal.
Some seeds are carried by wind, stick to the fur of animals or are eaten.
Complete the Monocot/Dicot colouring with the large lily on the back
YOU SHOULD BE VERY FAMILIAR WITH
THIS COLOURING FOR THE UNIT TEST!