Plant Diversity Plants are grouped according to major characteristics. Non-vascular (Bryophytes)—have no internal transport system for food or water. Must live in moist areas, and all are small. (WHY?) Example: moss Vascular—have a tube network inside the stem. (Advantage?) Have true roots, stems and leaves. Non-seed plants—reproduce by spores. Are simple and ancient types of plants (they have been around since dinosaurs). Some are vascular, some non-vascular. Examples: ferns, horsetails Seed plants—reproduce by seeds. Advantage: Can survive harsh conditions, have energy to begin growth. Examples: most plants. Types of seed plants Gymnosperms—“naked seeds”. Seeds are usually in cones, not inside a fruit. Examples: cycads, gingkoes, pine, spruce, redwood. Angiosperms—“covered seeds.” Fruits are ripened ovaries of flowers. Examples: Anything with a flower. Angiosperms are divided into two groups. Monocots—have one seed leaf. Leaves have parallel veins. Roots are fibrous (shallow and spreading). Many are annual or biennial. Examples: grasses, grains, corn, lilies Dicots—have two seed leaves. Leaves have net-like veins. Roots are taproots (deep and concentrated). Many are perennial. Ex.: most trees and shrubs, vegetables and garden flowers. Dicots are further divided by their stem type. Woody stems—make bark and have heartwood. Herbaceous stems—have green stems (no bark/heartwood).