Foundations of Organizational Behavior

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Goal Setting
Dr. Jeanne Michalski
[email protected]
GOAL SETTING
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In a wide variety of industries:
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With a wide variety of people:
Those who set goals consistently outperformed those who did
not --
By a Significant Margin!!
Goal Setting
Research projects have established that:
•Less than 3% of the population have identified specific
personal or business goals
•Only approximately 1% of the population put goals in
writing.
People don’t plan to fail They simply fail to plan!!
Goal Specifications
There are two types of goals: poorly defined and
well defined. To obtain good results, having well
defined goals is a must.
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Poorly defined goals:
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Stated in terms such as improve or increase.
Not achievable or no target dates.
Ambiguous in regard to what is expected.
Goal Specifications
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Poorly defined goals...
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Theoretical and idealistic.
Too brief and indefinite.
Too long and complex.
Distress producing and conflicting.
Created without sincere self analysis
Goal Specification
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Well defined goals are:
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Stated numerically in terms of end results.
Achievable at a specific time.
Comprised of definite expectations.
Challengingly high but practical.
Precisely stated.
Thoughtfully engaged.
Goal Specification
Make more money than
last year.

I will net $5,000 more than I
did last year, which is the
equivalent of a 10% increase.

Lose weight.

I will lose 12 pounds within the
next 12 weeks, while at the
same time exercise to improve
my overall body muscle and
skin tone.

Become better at my job.

I will request feedback on my
performance, from my boss,
every month and act on his/her
feedback to improve my
performance . I will attend at
least 2 educational seminars to
expand my skills.

Goal Setting Basics
1.
2.
3.
4.
Specific
Challenging
Achievable
Participatively set
“SMART” Goals
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time
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Set interim or subgoals.
Use action verbs.
Specific dates, times, and amounts.
GOAL SETTING
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If possible have your employees set their
own goals
Hard goals are better than easy ones
Goals can be revised as needed
Writing down goals increases the
probability they will be accomplished
Sharing goals with others demonstrates
our commitment to achieve them
Participation

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No one knows the job better than those who do it.
Workers are more likely to accept the goals with input.
Employee
Employee
High
Low
Management
High
Participation
Unilateral
Management
Low
Empowered /
Self Managed
No Goals
Why Do Goals Motivate?
Why Do Goals Motivate?
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Focus attention of the employee
Prolong persistence
Provide challenge – competition
Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards
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When goals are achieved:
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Positive affect
Job satisfaction
Self-efficacy
Organizational recognition and rewards
Expectancy Theory
Motivation = E X I X V
Expectancy: The connection between behavior and the outcome
Instrumentality: The connection between outcome and a reward
Valence: Is the reward something that the individual values?
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People are motivated by intrinsic and extrinsic rewards they desire.
People will only be motivated if outcome is possible.
People will only be motivated if outcome is contingent on behavior.
People will only be motivated if a reward is attached to the outcome.
“Line of sight” is the perceived link between individual behavior
and the reward.
Goal Challenge and Performance
High
Note: Not to scale
Performance
Low
Performance
Easy
Moderately Difficult
Extremely Difficult
GOAL SETTING
Setting challenging goals
creates fear of failure…
…setting no goals
guarantees it!!
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