Motivation - Rob Waring

Akemi Nozaki and Eriko Uchida
1.1 Introduction
When you decide to do something or act toward a designed goal, you
might have a kind of energy to cope with it. This, a kind of engine, is a
‘motivation’. In respect of learning, motivation is an important factor to
students’ learning success. If students are motivated well, they may
have a positive attitude toward learning.
1.2 Defining motivation
Motivation; various kinds of theory
1.2.1 A behavioristic definition
For example, human beings, like other living creatures, will pursue a
goal because they perceive a reward for doing so. This rewards serves
to reinforce behavior.
*rewards: praise, gold, certificate, diploma
1.2.2 Cognitive definition
While rewards are very much a part of the whole picture, the
difference lies in the power of self-reward.
a. hierarchy of needs theory: Abraham Maslow (1970)
esteem need
safety needs; security, protection
Key point: Person is not adequately energized to pursue some of the higher
needs until the lower foundations of the pyramids have been satisfied.
self - actualization
In the classroom
Even familiar classroom procedures (checking homework, small – talk at
the beginning of class, etc.), if they fulfill lower-order needs, can pave the way to
meeting higher-order needs.
b. Self – control theory
Motivation is highest when one can make one’s own choices. According to
certain cognitive psychologists (for instance, Hunt 1971), we define ourselves by
making our own decisions, rather than by simply reacting to others.
In the classroom
When learners have opportunities to make their own choices about what
to pursue and what not to pursue, they will fulfill this need for autonomy (自主
性). So it is important that teachers should give the opportunities.
1.2.3. Instrumental/integrative motivation
Robert Gardner: Studies of language immersion in Canada
・ to get a better job
・ to pass an examination
・to become a part of a target
language community
2.1. Extrinsic Motivation and Intrinsic Motivation
Definitions of a two types of motivation
Extrinsic motivation: competitions, reward and punishment, entrance examination
Intrinsic motivation: interests, the need for nature.
1. Studying a foreign language is important because it will someday be useful in getting a
good job; fluent speakers of English are employed easily.
2. Studying a foreign language is important because I want to know how it is work more.
Pattern 1 is extrinsic motivation and pattern 2 is intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsically motivated behaviors are carried out in anticipation of a reward from outside
and beyond the self. Typical extrinsic rewards are money, prizes, grades, and type of
positive feedback.
If there are no stimulus or after they achieved the goal, their motivation is dissolved.
Extrinsic motivation is very momentary.
Intrinsically motivated activities
are ones for which there is no apparent reward except the activity itself. Intrinsically
motivated behaviors are aimed at bringing about certain internally rewarding consequences,
feeling of competence and self-determination.
Interesting: sound,
Familiar teaching material,
Useful --- using Classroom English
Understand easily
The need for nature: the need for belonging,
The need for approval
Teachers can develop his/her student’s other ability by allowing them to.
The strength of motivation and eagerness for learning
Strong motivation: Student makes a good record.
Too much strong motivation (e.g. some pressures): Student’s study is suffocated (阻害
Under high pressure: we cannot call forth our own full
Which form of motivation is more powerful?
Money, grades and prizes are easy to make us more actively to work and study.
However if we make mistakes, feel failure and there is no positive feedback, our motivation
will go down. Rewards can take over and destroy enjoyment. Keep continue to have high
motivation is very difficult.
Interesting is very important to do study. If we have interest in something, we want
to know more information about that. We can get positive feedback easily because the
theme is very interesting. Self-reward is connect with self-actualization.
To improve intrinsic motivation
Result from GTEC (Global Test of English Communication) for students
Average of
Average of
Average of
Average of total
listening (full
reading (320)
writing (160)
score (800)
mark is 320)
Japanese high school student’s English ability is not so bad, however many students don’t
have confident. Japanese high school student’s self evaluation is very low so we need to
make students have confident in the class. To make have intrinsic motivation, to make have
confident is the best way. Active learning can keep their motivation.
Motivation is very important to learn and there are a lot of types of motivations. All needs
to live more comfortably so one may study to enter university and one may study because of
interest. The effect of motivation is exercised with intrinsic motivation. To improve the
intrinsic motivation, teachers have to praise student and make them have confident, and
have to do lesson which student understand easily. To improve intrinsic motivation is very
H. Douglas Brown : Principles of Language Learning and Teaching
Vivian Cook :Second Language Learning and Language Teaching