ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS T E N T H E D I T I O N Biographical Characteristics Age – Q: Are older workers “better” or “worse” than younger workers in terms of performance? Gender – Q: Any differences between male and female workers? Marital Status – Q: So, should we hire only married employees?? Why? Why not? Ability Physical Ability The Ability-Job Fit Employee’s Abilities Ability-Job Fit Job’s Ability Requirements Learning Learning • Involves CHANGE • Is relatively PERMANENT • Is acquired through EXPERIENCE Theories of Learning Key Concepts • Unconditioned stimulus: “meat” • Unconditioned response: “saliva” • Conditioned response: “saliva” after bell Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts • B.F. Skinner – behavior is learned • Reinforcement is key Theories of Learning (cont’d) Theories of Learning (cont’d) Key Concepts • Reinforcement is required to change behavior. • Some rewards are more effective than others. • The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. Schedules of Reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-ratio Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d) OB MOD Organizational Applications Well Pay versus Sick Pay – Reduce absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not absence. Employee Discipline – The use of punishment can be counter-productive. Developing Training Programs – OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness. Self-management – Reduces the need for external management control. Summary Employee age seems to have NO relationship to productivity. Ability: directly influences an employee’s level of performance and satisfaction through the ability-job fit. An effective selection process (including a job analysis) will improve the fit. Promotion and transfer decisions *should* reflect the abilities of the candidates. Learning Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for managers Try to use reinforcement instead of punishment if you can Your employees learn from your behavior - think about your actions – you are a role model whether you realize it or not!