JMJ 6th Grade Religion (Priests, Prophets and Kings) Final Examination Review 2015 In addition to all of the notes you have in your religion journals, know the following: The Bible is God’s Word: God inspired people to write it, gather it and share it (Inspiration). Revelation is how God talks to us and shows us that he loves us. Hebrew Scriptures = Old Testament = the sacred writings of the Hebrews that contain God’s revelation to us There are 46 books in the Old Testament; they are divided into 4 categories: Law Historical Prophetic Wisdom Pentateuch means “five scrolls” and refers to the first five books of the Bible: Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Torah means “law” and refers to the Pentateuch or to all of the Jewish laws revealed by God in the Old Testament The Hebrews (Jewish people) are God’s chosen people Shalom = “peace” in Hebrew God reveals Himself through creation and Scripture, but Jesus is the perfect revelation of God. Jesus is the Fulfillment of the Law because He fulfilled the Old Testament promises that God made; He is the Messiah born in Bethlehem (Micah 5:1) that was promised to God’s chosen people. Each book in the Bible is divided into chapters; each chapter is divided into verses; Biblical references list the book, then the chapter, then the verses (Luke 24:13-35) God creates out of NOTHING! Everything God creates is GOOD! God can be revealed through creation; He wants us to be good stewards of the earth. Genesis tells the story of creation; it teaches truth, not scientific or historical facts. Whether God created the universe in six days or six million years doesn’t matter; what does matter is: There is only one God God is good, wise, powerful, orderly and loving Everything and everyone depends upon God God created human beings in his image Men and women have equal dignity Humans are stewards of creation Know the order of The Ladder of Creation (the hierarchy of creation): God (The Uncreated Spirit) 1. Spirit Life (Angels are pure spirits—beings that have no body) 2. Human Life (us – made in the image of God) 3. Animal Life (dogs, cats, horses, cows, mice) 4. Plant Life (flowers, trees, vegetables, fruit, wheat, oats) 5. Nonliving Things (rocks, stones, sand, air, sunshine) Humans are made in the image of God; our Souls enable us to live forever Free Will is our ability to choose between right and wrong, good and evil Intellect is our ability to learn, to understand, to reason Sin separates us from God and hurts our relationships with others. Sin causes conflict, destruction, pain, suffering and unhappiness in the world. Remember our news articles? Pride, Greed, Envy, Wrath, Lust, Gluttony and Sloth are the seven deadly sins; most ‘bad news’ can be traced back to these sins. Sin came into the world through the disobedience of Adam and Eve; their choice to disobey God resulted in every human being born into Original Sin, our separation from God and our tendency to sin. Know the three stories in Genesis that show how sin spread through the world: The story of Cain and Abel (jealousy, wrath, murder) The story of the Great Flood (Noah’s Ark) and God’s Covenant (Rainbow) The story of the Tower of Babel (confused languages) Baptism restores God’s grace within us (Sanctifying Grace) and helps us resist the temptation to sin. When we do sin, God’s love and mercy help us. Reconciliation heals our separation from God and/or our separation from others. We should forgive others because God always forgives us. Forgiveness leads to peace and happiness. God calls and we respond. Salvation History is the story of God’s love for his people; we see Salvation History in three parts: 1. The Old Testament (God’s people experience his power and loving care) 2. Jesus fulfills God’s promise to send a Messiah (the New Testament) 3. The Church Today (we belong to this part!) God created you here & now for a reason! Be able to write about your Mission and what you think your part in Salvation History might be! Patriarch: father or ruler of a Jewish tribe Covenant: sacred promise made between God and people Fertile Crescent: area of rich soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Ur: the city in Chaldea from which Abraham moved Haran: the city Abraham moved to (from Ur) Chaldea: land through which Abraham journeyed Canaan: the land God promised to Abraham’s descendents Palestine: the land of Canaan given to Abraham’s descendents; the Holy Land Abraham (his name means ‘father of many nations’) Abraham was the first patriarch or the father and ruler of the chosen people His wife Sarah gave birth to Isaac The Canaanites (the pagans who lived in Canaan) often sacrificed their first-born children to their gods; God tested Abraham’s faith by telling him to sacrifice Isaac. God was pleased with Abraham’s faith, trust and obedience; the God of Abraham did not want human sacrifices! Our God, unlike the pagan gods, wants our sacrifices to be good—serving others and praying; trusting in God and His Providence. Isaac married Rebekah and had two sons: Esau and Jacob. Know this story! Esau: hairy/traded his birthright for stew! Jacob: tricked Isaac (who was blind) with Rebekah’s help (goat skin) * dreamt of a ladder at Bethel (known as Jacob’s Ladder) * worked for Laban so that he could marry Rachel, but got tricked into marrying Leah first * tricked Laban by taking all the best sheep and goats (gave to Esau as a peace offering) * wrestled with the Divine and demanded a blessing * had his name changed to Israel * received his mission to be the patriarch of God’s chosen people, the Israelites * from his twelve sons came the Twelve Tribes of Israel Know the story of Joseph (one of Israel’s twelve sons): Favorite son with a fine, long tunic (later stained with animal’s blood) Dreams, jealous brothers, thrown into a dry well Sold to a caravan of traders for 20 pieces of silver Slave to Potiphar, one of the pharaoh’s officials Falsely accused by Potiphar’s wife Thrown into prison Interpreted dreams of the Pharaoh’s baker and cupbearer Interpreted the Pharaoh’s dreams (seven years of plenty/seven years of famine) Pharaoh promoted him to governor over all of Egypt Israel sends his sons to get food and grain in Egypt Joseph plots revenge on his brothers Hides his silver cup/accuses them of being thieves/spies Keeps his brother Simeon as a prisoner Demands Benjamin (the youngest brother) as a slave, but relents (has compassion!) Reveals his true identity Tells his family to move to Goshen so he can care for them The Israelites remained in Egypt and prospered When Israel is about to die, he blesses his son Judah by telling him he will be as powerful as a lion and rule over all the others. The Messiah, the one promised to deliver all people from sin, would come from Judah’s family (Jesus comes from the Tribe of Judah)! Be able to write a short explanation about how God’s Providence worked in Joseph’s life. Joseph (betrayed by his brothers, sold for twenty silver pieces, forgave his enemies) prefigures Jesus Christ; the Old Testament often suggests (points to) or prefigures things that will happen in the New Testament. Sanctuary: a holy place; in a church, the area around the altar Know the story of Moses (told in Exodus) The Israelites (Hebrews) are enslaved by the Egyptians Pharaoh orders all newborn Hebrew boys to be drowned (worried about their numbers) A basket with a baby boy is found in the reeds of the Nile River Pharaoh’s daughter adopts the boy and names him Moses (which means “drawn from the water”) Moses is raised in the Pharaoh’s court He kills an Egyptian and flees to Midian He stays with a Midianite priest, Reuel, and marries one of his daughters He works as a shepherd for many years Encounters God on Mt. Sinai (also called Mt. Horeb) in the burning bush; Holy ground Moses discovers his mission “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel: Let my people go” God hears the prayers of his people and wants to lead them to a land of “milk and honey” Pharaoh refuses to listen; he makes things worse for the Hebrews Ten Plagues (frogs, disease, boils, hailstones, locusts, darkness…) The final plague is the death of every firstborn in the land. (Hebrews are “passed over”) Pharaoh finally relents; Moses parts the Red Sea; Pharaoh’s chariots are obliterated Wandering in the desert for forty years: God feeds his people: Wilderness (dangerous journey); the Israelites wandered for forty years Manna (white flakes on the ground in the morning) Quail (sent in the evening) Water (Moses struck a rock in the desert and pure water flowed forth) Ten Commandments: God’s laws; God’s covenant with the Israelites Ark of the Covenant: the chest where the commandments were kept; a sign of God’s presence Tent of Meeting: a portable sanctuary Idolatry: while Moses is on the mountain, the Israelites create and worship a golden calf Stiff-necked People: the Israelites are stubborn and haughty Passover: feast celebrating the Hebrew’s deliverance; they marked their doorposts with the blood of a spotless lamb so that the angel of death would pass over their homes Seder meal: The Jewish Passover meal with symbolic bitter herbs/matzoh (unleavened bread); it prefigures our Christian Eucharist Exodus: refers to the Israelites’ departure from Egypt, their wanderings through the desert, their journey to the Promised Land Liturgy of the Word: (first part of the Mass) we hear the Word of God and the story of our salvation Liturgy of the Eucharist: (second part of the Mass) we are fed by the body and blood of Christ and strengthened and united as His people Lectionary: contains all the readings for the liturgy Votive Masses: celebrate the mysteries of the Lord or honor Mary or the saints Liturgical Year: celebrations of the church year that revolve around Christmas and Easter Ordinary Time: time between the seasons of Christmas and Lent/Easter and Advent Holy Days of Obligation: feast days in which we honor Jesus, Mary, or the saints Advent: season of preparation for Christmas Lent: season of preparation for Easter After Solomon’s reign, the Kingdom was divided into the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah Wicked Ahab and his evil queen Jezebel ruled the northern kingdom of Israel; Jezebel was so bad, she worshipped Baal (the pagan god who demanded human sacrifices); Elijah was the prophet who told them about the TRUE God of Israel (around 800 BC) Assyria: powerful nation that conquered Israel and made Judah pay a tribute Ahaz: King of Judah who made a deal with Assyria (tribute) Hezekiah: King of Judah who fought for freedom (from Assyria) Tribute: a high price paid for protection Exile: many good things came from the Babylonian exile; the Israelites returned to God; they wrote down the words of the prophets; they learned that God was with them even though there was no Temple; they built Synagogues to help them keep the Sabbath holy and to pray for faithfulness Babylon: the ancient capital city of Babylonia known for its wealth, luxury and evil; the Israelites served their exile (for 40 years) in Babylon when the Babylonians destroyed the city of Jerusalem in 587 B.C. Synagogue: a place for prayer and the reading of Scriptures; NO sacrifices allowed Temple: the Temple of Jerusalem (also called Solomon’s Temple) was destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 B.C.; the Israelites were punished because they were practicing idolatry and injustice; Jeremiah tried to warn them but they didn’t believe him. Jews: the name given to the Israelites because they were descendents of the Tribe of Judah; they were called Jews after their release from exile in Babylon because they were the REMNANT of the Tribe of Judah that was promised a new covenant with God. First, Second and Third Isaiah: the OT books that promise a remnant of the Tribe of Judah will remain and the Messiah will come; the second and third books (chapters 40-66) might have been written by Isaiah’s disciples Book of Lamentations: the OT prophecies of Jeremiah telling the Israelites they will be punished for their evil works PROPHETS: A Prophet is someone called by God to speak/write God’s Word There are FOUR major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel) and TWELVE minor prophets Amos: a minor prophet of Israel who told the rich/selfish people of Israel that they were unjust and greedy; his prophecy that Israel would be punished came true when Assyria conquered them (around 750 BC). Amos reminded the people that God had been faithful to them (brought them out of Egypt, fed them in the desert, brought them to the Promised Land). Isaiah: major prophet of Judah who foretold the Messiah (the suffering servant) and told the kingdom of Judah that they would be conquered (the kings of Judah did not believe him) but that God would preserve a REMNANT of the people (the Tribe of Judah) (around 750 BC) Jeremiah: major prophet (wrote Book of Lamentations) who tried to warn the Israelites that they would be exiled from Jerusalem and that the Temple would be destroyed (they didn’t believe him) Ezekiel: major prophet who encouraged the Israelites to have HOPE (not despair) while they were exiled in Babylon because God would not abandon them; Ezekiel had several powerful visions—remember the field of dry bones that turned into skeletons and then became covered in flesh; this vision was a SYMBOL of the power of God’s Word to bring a spirit of life into a dead people. Daniel: major prophet who ministered to the captives in Babylon and showed them how to be faithful to God’s Word. Ezra: a priest who helped the Jews to follow the Law of Moses after they returned (from their Babylonian exile) to the Promised Land For Christians Today: Salvation History helps us understand that God is always with us and that he can make good come from suffering; God wants us to be faithful to him, even when we fall into bad habits, and God wants us to know he loves us. Know: Virtues and Vices; be able to identify The Seven Sacraments, especially those that use anointing Justice: virtue that gives everyone fair treatment Social Justice: making society and the world better for EVERYONE Works of Mercy: we perform Corporal Works (body) and Spiritual Works (Spirit) to be like Christ The Ten Commandments 1. Worship God (I am the Lord, your God, you shall not have other gods besides me) 2. Honor God’s Name (You shall not take the name of the Lord, your God, in vain) 3. Keep God’s Day Holy (Remember to keep holy the Sabbath Day) 4. Obey (Honor your father and your mother) 5. Be Kind (You shall not kill) 6. Be Pure (You shall not commit adultery) 7. Be Honest (You shall not steal) 8. Be Truthful (You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor) 9. Keep Desires Pure (You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife) 10. Keep Desires Honest (You shall not covet your neighbor’s goods) Jesus summarized the first three commandments: “You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, with all your mind, and with all your strength.” (Mark 12:30-31) Jesus summarized the last seven commandments: “You shall love your neighbor as yourself” The Golden Rule: Treat others as you would like to be treated. What is your mission? All Christians continue the life and work of Jesus, but each one of us has been given special gifts and talents to do this! Communal Prayer: praying with a group (at Mass, during class) Private Prayer: praying alone (morning, noon and night) Providence: God’s watching over us with loving care; God can make good come from bad! What is LOVE? Love wants what is best for the other. Understand the role of John the Baptist (last and greatest prophet), Mary (the Magnificat) and the Messiah (Jesus) Understand key concepts learned in the Theology of the Body classes taught with Mrs. Paulus Be able to identify the important traits of a good and healthy relationship.