The Birth of a New Nation Warm-up – Translate this paragraph “Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government,…….” Thomas Jefferson, The Declaration of Independence The French and Indian War (1754-1763) England and France go to war over colonial territories The Navigation Acts – laws that gave England control of colonial trade British Victory in French and Indian War Britain (England) wins but is heavily in debt. Expect the colonies to help pay cost The Albany Plan of Union (1754) Plan proposed by Ben Franklin for the colonies to unite for mutual defense Rejected but shows that the colonies are considering unifying. Proclamation of 1763 No settlements beyond the Appalachian Mtns. Prevents conflict w/ Native Americans but enrages farmers who wish to have more land. Stamp Act (1765) British tax on newspapers and legal documents First tax on colonies by Parliament “No taxation without representation” – becomes slogan of revolution Boycott - Colonists refuse to buy British products Stamp Act Congress (1765) Meeting of representatives from each colony in New York to protest actions of King Stamp Act is repealed because of boycotts Declaratory Act (1767) Parliament ‘declares’ it has the right to make decisions for and tax the colonies “in all cases” Townshend Acts (1766) Set of laws that further restricted colonial rights Writs of Assistance general warrants to search any property at any time, The Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) British soldiers shoot into angry crowd and kill 5 colonists Became propaganda for those who wanted revolution The Tea Act (1773) Made British East India Tea exempt from taxes and cheaper than colonial tea. Gives British a business advantage. The Boston Tea Party (1773) Colonists dump English tea into Boston Harbor to protest tea act. The Coercive/Intolerable Acts (1774) Took away colonists civil rights, including trial by jury The First Continental Congress (1774) 12 Colonies send delegates (representatives) to Philadelphia to address concerns. Send request to king demanding rights be restored The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 1775) British soldiers and colonists fight first battles of Revolution. “The shot heard round the world” – influenced independence movements around the world The 2nd Continental Congress (1775-1776) Delegates returned to Philadelphia to determine next step Eventually decide to fight for independence The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Document declaring the colonies free from British control Who wrote Common Sense and what was its purpose? Thomas Paine Purpose was to encourage revolution Who wrote the Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson Two Purposes of Declaration Declare independence State the reasons why John Locke’s Influence on Declaration of Independence All men equal All men entitled to rights Government power comes from the people Right to abolish an oppressive government John Locke’s Social Contract Government is created to secure rights of people and when it fails to do this the people have the right to abolish it.