immune surveillance - Effingham County Schools

Lymphatic System Questions
1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return
it to the bloodstream.
• Also help defend the body against infections.
2. Lymphatic capillaries containing lymph
Lymphatic vessels
Lymph nodes
Lymphatic trunks
Collecting ducts
Ducts lead to the subclavian vein
3. Subclavian vein
4. Thymus and Spleen
5. Water
Filtering potentially harmful particles from the
lymph before returning it to the bloodstream.
Monitoring of body fluids (immune surveillance)
is provided by lymphocytes and macrophages.
Lymphocytes will attack viruses and bacteria or
parastic cells.
Macrophages will engulf and destroy foreign
substances, damaged cells and cellular debris.
7. Nonspecific defense (Innate)are general and protect
against many types of pathogens. They function in the
same way.
Species resistance, Mechanical barriers (skin and
Mucous membranes), Chemical barriers (Enzymes,
Interferons), natural killer cells, inflammation,
phagocytosis and fever.
Interferons – hormone like substances produced
In response to viruses or tumor cells. Binds to uninfected
Cells to stimulate them to synthesize proteins that will
block the replication of viruses.
Specific defenses – They are very precise, targeting
specific pathogens with immunity.
Molecules that provide immunity are called antigens.
During fetal development, red bone marrow release
unspecialized cells that will become lymphocytes.
Some will reach thymus and become T cells to be released
Other will remain in the red bone marrow to become
B cells.
(See further discussion on T and B cells in notes)
8. Species resistance (A species or specific organism
develops diseases that are unique to that specific
Mechanical barriers (Skin, mucous membranes)
Chemical barriers (Enzymes, Interferon)
Natural killer cells
9. First line of defense will prevent the entrance of some
infectious agents.
Second line of defense provides a barrier inside the
body once the infectious agents have entered or fight
And destroy the agents inside the body.
10. Cells inventory the proteins and other large
molecules in the body learning to identify them.
The lymphatic system then only respond to foreign
antigens, but not ‘self’ antigens.
This prevents the body against destroying itself.
11. T cells – provide immune response in which the T cells
interact directly with the antigens or antigen bearing
agents to destroy them
B cells – Interact indirectly – produce antibodies that
will destroy the antigens or antigen bearing agents.
12. Primary immune response:
When B and T cells become activated after first encountering
antigens. During such a response antibodies are released,
transported by the blood throughout the body where they
destroy antigen- bearing agents.
Secondary immune response:
Some of the B cells after the primary immune response
become dormant and serve as memory cells. If an identical
antigen is encountered in the future, it is recognized by
the memory B cells and more antibodies are produced.
Acquired immunity: Naturally - It develops after
primary immune response to exposure to a live
pathogen and development of symptoms.
A child usually only suffers an infection like measles
mumps once in their life time.
Vaccines – cause a person to develop artificial
acquired active immunity.
Autoimmunity: The immune system fails to distinguish
self from non-self and then produce antibodies
that attack and damage the body’s tissues and