Lymphatic System Questions 1. Transports excess fluid away from tissues and return it to the bloodstream. • Also help defend the body against infections. 2. Lymphatic capillaries containing lymph Lymphatic vessels Lymph nodes Lymphatic trunks Collecting ducts Ducts lead to the subclavian vein 3. Subclavian vein 4. Thymus and Spleen 5. Water 6. Filtering potentially harmful particles from the lymph before returning it to the bloodstream. Monitoring of body fluids (immune surveillance) is provided by lymphocytes and macrophages. Lymphocytes will attack viruses and bacteria or parastic cells. Macrophages will engulf and destroy foreign substances, damaged cells and cellular debris. 7. Nonspecific defense (Innate)are general and protect against many types of pathogens. They function in the same way. Includes: Species resistance, Mechanical barriers (skin and Mucous membranes), Chemical barriers (Enzymes, Interferons), natural killer cells, inflammation, phagocytosis and fever. Interferons – hormone like substances produced In response to viruses or tumor cells. Binds to uninfected Cells to stimulate them to synthesize proteins that will block the replication of viruses. Specific defenses – They are very precise, targeting specific pathogens with immunity. Molecules that provide immunity are called antigens. During fetal development, red bone marrow release unspecialized cells that will become lymphocytes. Some will reach thymus and become T cells to be released later. Other will remain in the red bone marrow to become B cells. (See further discussion on T and B cells in notes) 8. Species resistance (A species or specific organism develops diseases that are unique to that specific species.) Mechanical barriers (Skin, mucous membranes) Chemical barriers (Enzymes, Interferon) Natural killer cells Inflammation Phagocytosis Fever 9. First line of defense will prevent the entrance of some infectious agents. Second line of defense provides a barrier inside the body once the infectious agents have entered or fight And destroy the agents inside the body. 10. Cells inventory the proteins and other large molecules in the body learning to identify them. The lymphatic system then only respond to foreign antigens, but not ‘self’ antigens. This prevents the body against destroying itself. 11. T cells – provide immune response in which the T cells interact directly with the antigens or antigen bearing agents to destroy them B cells – Interact indirectly – produce antibodies that will destroy the antigens or antigen bearing agents. 12. Primary immune response: When B and T cells become activated after first encountering antigens. During such a response antibodies are released, transported by the blood throughout the body where they destroy antigen- bearing agents. Secondary immune response: Some of the B cells after the primary immune response become dormant and serve as memory cells. If an identical antigen is encountered in the future, it is recognized by the memory B cells and more antibodies are produced. Acquired immunity: Naturally - It develops after primary immune response to exposure to a live pathogen and development of symptoms. A child usually only suffers an infection like measles mumps once in their life time. Vaccines – cause a person to develop artificial acquired active immunity. Autoimmunity: The immune system fails to distinguish self from non-self and then produce antibodies that attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs.