Philip II of Macedon & the demise of hellenic greece

Western Civilization
University High School
constant warfare,
political/military conflict
between city-states
hegemony: political &
military dominance of one
city-state over the others
(Sparta, then Athens)
rise of federalism: system of
political power where
independent states are bound
together by a common
federal government
inspiration for American
federalism and US Constitution
land north of
mainland Greece
large area, big
population, fertile
becomes king of Macedonia in
359 BCE
saw Athens as primary threat
to Macedonia
began to expand Macedonian rule
in NW Aegean Sea
by 338 BCE: conquered Athens
and Thebes, took control of
used concepts of peace,
federalism to rule conquered
Greek lands
united Greek states under his
retained many of the ancient
Greek ideals and ways of living
Western Civilization
University High School
Philip II assassinated in 336 BCE
Macedonian throne  Alexander
(his son)
overthrows Persians, spreads
Hellenism (Greek culture & way
of life) through Europe and Asia
Alexander’s rule (starting in 336
BCE) = beginning of Hellenistic
era of Ancient Greece (and end
of Hellenic era)
wanted to complete dad’s plan to unite
Macedonians & Greeks against the Persians
 “a great crusade”
 revenge for Persian invasions of Greek land
334 BCE: Alexander leads Macedonian/Greek
army into Asia Minor
 Included philosophers, poets, scientists,
historians  document & spread Greek
in Egypt: took
control, honored
priests, named
consulted oracle
of Zeus-Amon,
began considering
himself the son of
in Persia:
defeated Persian
army at Battle of
captured capital
city (Persepolis)
and burned
Xerxes’ buildings
in revenge for
attacking Greece
captured last
Persian capital
(Ecbatana) in 330
BCE, killed
Persian king
Persian empire
defeated, but
Alexander not
done yet
determined to
explore and
conquer all of Asia
326 BCE: crossed
the Indus River
into India
323 BCE:
Alexander the
Great dies in
Babylon at the age
of 32
demise of Persian empire
(200 year rule)
established Macedonian
monarchy instead
founded new colonies,
cities across the East
connection between East
and West  spread of
Greek culture, ideas
return of monarchies
historical concept for Greeks,
but came back into fashion to
unite disparate groups of
kingship was hereditary
(even for women, in some
Greeks were used to being
sovereign: independent, free,
Greek immigration encouraged
to provide people to run new
Greek monarchies
offered land, money
built cities to resemble polis life
cities had assemblies, etc. 
but could not make treaties,
wage wars, pursue foreign
relations, etc.
appearance of democracy, but
the king was ultimately in
inequality in Hellenistic
natives/non-Greeks did not
have same rights as Greeks
 did not spark the same unity
& togetherness that the polis
Hellenistic cities similar to
today’s cities
cultural centers (temples,
educational centers (libraries,
economic centers
(marketplaces, trade)
political centers (rule of the
(Hellenism) spread
throughout the “East”
big advantage to
adopting Hellenism:
the pervasiveness of
Greek ideas
ex. Greek became
language of Egypt, East,
etc. (commerce, trade,
began giving
citizenship to
“Hellenized” citizens
Complete all questions and activities in the
DBQ packet.
Write a paragraph whether or not Alexander
the Great should be considered “great.”
Use at least two documents from the Mini-Q packet
to support your answer.
Due Monday, Feb. 26th
Also due Monday: Ch. 3 Key Terms &
Summary Questions