Recombinant DNA Technologies

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Recombinant DNA Technologies
A.DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid
1. Bases:
A- Adenine
b.
C- Cytosine
c.
G- Guanine
d.
T- Thymine
-put together in a double-helical molecule
with A-T & C-G as the “rungs”
-form GENES
e. We have about 30,000 genes and they are
mapped by location on each chromosome
-”Human Genome Project”
f. We are 99.9% identical; .1% makes us unique
and different from Rob Marder (thank
heaven!)
a.
B. DNA fingerprinting
1. Find areas of variation
2. Hit with restriction enzymes
=>neat DNA cutting tools (listen for where
they came from!)
3. Run through a gel (electrophoresis)
a. After cutting, small particles move
fast, larger ones move slowly
b. Gives a banding pattern:
Gel Electrophoresis & Apparatus
Two examples to try:
-Crime Scene & Paternity
Testing (Maury Povich
style!)
C. Gene Therapy
1. Problems with gene expression lead to faulty
molecules, especially enzymes
-cannot do their jobs
2. examples: Cystic Fibrosis & Tay Sachs
diseases
3. Idea: replace bad genes with good ones that
make the proper molecule
 And theoretically “fix” the problem
4. How can we deliver the new genes?
(i.e. what do we know that inserts genes over
existing ones…. Think “poison”)
 Called “vectors”
D. Cloning
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Genetically identical copies
Replace nucleus of egg w/ compat. Adult
DIPLOID nucleus and jolt w/ electricity
Age of clone- new or as old as donated
DNA?
Just because we can, does that mean we
should?
Examples:
E. PCR- Polymerase Chain Reaction
1.Takes small
amounts of DNA
and copies it
millions of times
2. Useful when DNA
quantities are
minute
-crime scenes
-archeological
finds
F. Transgenic organisms
1. Organisms with foreign DNA spliced into it
2. Examples:
a. Bacteria- make chemicals that we need
1) insulin (rather than from a dead pig’s organ)
2) fertilizers
3) hormones
4) nutrasweet (phenylalanine- watch out PKU
people)
5) Spider silk for manufacturing
b. Plants
1) Resist frost (Arctic flounder gene)
2) Disease resistance
Transgenic organisms continued:
c. Animals
1. Goats that produce anticlotting protein
2. Glowing Rabbits:
-Fun , but actually are
“markers”
3. “Human” Mice
 Benefit?
4. Rejection –resistant pigs
for organ transplants into
humans
(xenotransplantation)
Example of how we generate HUMAN insulin
from bacteria:
•What are some benefits to utilizing this method?
•How did Diabetics get their insulin before this was
developed?
•Hint: Our friend, the pig
Genetic engineering funnies
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