American Imperialism

American Imperialism
 To His Excellency, Don José Canalejas (Spanish Foreign Minister)
 The situation here remains the same. Everything depends on the political
and military outcome in Cuba... Until then, nothing can be clearly seen,
and I regard it as a waste of time and progress, by a wrong road, to be
sending emissaries to the rebel camp, or to negotiate with the
autonomists who have as yet no legal standing, or to try to ascertain the
intentions and plans of [the US] government...
 Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all
that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it
once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration
of the crowd besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door
open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his
Stirrings of Imperialism
 The New Manifest Destiny
Attention to foreign lands, closing of the frontier
 Social Darwinism
 Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (1890) ‘Influence of Sea
 Foreign commerce, navy & colonies, Pacific bases
 Josiah Strong’s ‘Our Country; Its Possible Future & Present
 WASP values of liberty & Christianity –duty to spread
 Controlling the Hemisphere
 Secretary of State James Blaine sought Latin American
markets for excess goods
 Organized Pan – American Congress
 Leads to border dispute w/Venezuela in 1895
 Control of the Pacific: Hawaii
 US wants naval base at Hawaii
 After 1840, Americans & Europeans dominated political &
economic life
 Disease decimates 50% of native pop.
 SUGAR (major export); rise of plantations
 1890, US eliminates sugar tariff
 US annexes Hawaii in Dec. 1898
Queen Liliuokalani protests
 Control of the Pacific: Samoa
 US presence since 1878, share w/ Germany & GB
 1899 buys out GB & splits island w/Germany
‘you furnish me the pictures, I’ll furnish the war’
War with Spain: Causes
 Cuba Controversy
 Civil war b/w native Cubans & Spanish since 1868
 Spanish General ‘Butcher’ Weyler used concentration camps
against Cubans
 Yellow Journalism
 Pultizer’s NY World & Hearst’s NY Journal
 De Lome Letter
 Sinking of the Maine
“Splendid little war” –Sec. of State John Hay
 Lasted from April to August 1898
 US military not prepared –supply issues, few regular
army, many soldiers had never fought in-large scale
Racial conflicts w/ black soldiers
 Seizing of Philippines
 Comm. George Dewey ordered by Sec. of Navy, T. Roosevelt
 Captured Manila Bay after war declared
 Becomes a war to strip Spain of its colonies
Battle for Cuba & Control of the Caribbean
 American forces land in June
 Fight at Santiago, El Caney & Kettle Hill (San Juan Hill)
in July
Rough Riders led by TR charge up San Juan Hill
 US takes Puerto Rico & Guam
 Rising anti-imperialist sentiment by Twain, Carnegie,
Gompers, Sen John Sherman
 Armistice w/Spain –Treaty of Paris of 1898
Cuban independence
Ceded PR & Guam to US
Jones Act (1917) Puerto Ricans become US citizens
 Another source of sugar w/ no tariff
US buys Philippines for $20 mil
3 years guerilla war led by Emilio Aguinaldo
 Islands become dependent on US goods
 Open Door Policy
Gain concession/sphere of influence in China like other Europeans
had since the 1850s
 Philippine occupation increased US interest in Asian
 Sec. Hay proposed “open door notes” in 1898 to
European nations to allow free trade w/Chinese w/o no
colonies or military
 Development of modern professional military; officer
training schools, role of Joint Chiefs of Staff
 1899 Boxer Rebellion against foreigners
US military rescue
Republic as Empire
 Panama Canal
1903 Panamanian Revolution
TR sends forces ‘to maintain order’
Panama becomes independent & signs favorable treaty w/ US
 “Speak softly and carry a big stick’ -TR
 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904)
US will oppose European intervention in our hemisphere
US had a right to intervene in the western hemisphere to preserve
order & stability
 ‘Dollar Diplomacy’ –Taft administration
US investment in lesser developed nations
Criticized by some who felt the US should intervene, especially with
Honduras 1909; Nicaragua 1912
Now, Will You Be Good? Uncle
Sam (to Filipino) — "See what
I do for a good little boy?"
Something Lacking. Uncle Sam:
"Well, Sonny, What Is It?"
Philippines: "Where Do I Come In
On This?"
 Panama--A New Sister Republic. “The News
Reaches Bogota," 1903
A Fair
Field and
No Favor
Uncle Sam:
‘I am out for
commerce, not
 TR Big Stick